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Geology
Geology
Geology
(from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse"[1][2]) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite, (such as Mars
Mars
or the Moon). Geology
Geology
describes the structure of the Earth
Earth
beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure
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Halite
Halite
Halite
( /ˈhælaɪt/ or /ˈheɪlaɪt/),[4] commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl). Halite
Halite
forms isometric crystals.[5] The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates.Contents1 Occurrence 2 Uses 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksOccurrence[edit] Halite
Halite
cubes from the Stassfurt Potash deposit, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany (size: 6.7 × 1.9 × 1.7 cm) Halite
Halite
occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes, playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas
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Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid
is a corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. A colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water, when it reacts with an organic base it forms a hydrochloride salt. Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid
was discovered by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan
Jabir ibn Hayyan
around the year 800 AD.[5][6] Hydrochloric acid was historically called acidum salis, muriatic acid, and spirits of salt because it was produced from rock salt and "green vitriol" (Iron(II) sulfate) (by Basilius Valentinus
Basilius Valentinus
in the 15th century) and later from the chemically similar common salt and sulfuric acid (by Johann Rudolph Glauber
Johann Rudolph Glauber
in the 17th century). Free hydrochloric acid was first formally described in the 16th century by Libavius
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Crystallization
Crystallization
Crystallization
is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal. Some of the ways by which crystals form are precipitating from a solution, melting, or more rarely deposition directly from a gas. Attributes of the resulting crystal depend largely on factors such as temperature, air pressure, and in the case of liquid crystals, time of fluid evaporation. Crystallization
Crystallization
occurs in two major steps. The first is nucleation, the appearance of a crystalline phase from either a supercooled liquid or a supersaturated solvent. The second step is known as crystal growth, which is the increase in the size of particles and leads to a crystal state
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Natural Hazard
A natural hazard[1] is a natural phenomenon that might have a negative effect on humans or the environment. Natural hazard
Natural hazard
events can be classified into two broad categories[2]: geophysical and biological. Geophysical hazards[3][4] encompass geological and meteorological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, wildfires, cyclonic storms, floods, droughts, and landslides. Biological hazards can refer to a diverse array of disease, infection, and infestation. Many geophysical hazards are related;[5] for example, submarine earthquakes can cause tsunamis, and hurricanes can lead to coastal flooding and erosion. Floods and wildfires can result from a combination of geological, hydrological, and climatic factors
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Terrestrial Planet
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals. Within the Solar System, the terrestrial planets are the inner planets closest to the Sun, i.e. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
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Natural Satellite
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System
Solar System
body). In the Solar System
Solar System
there are six planetary satellite systems containing 175 known natural satellites.[1][2] Four IAU-listed dwarf planets are also known to have natural satellites: Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris.[3] As of October 2016[update], there are over 300 minor planets known to have moons.[4] The Earth– Moon
Moon
system is unique in that the ratio of the mass of the Moon
Moon
to the mass of Earth
Earth
is much greater than that of any other natural-satellite–planet ratio in the Solar System
Solar System
(although there are minor-planet systems with even greater ratios, notably the Pluto–Charon system)
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Water Resources
Water
Water
resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful. Uses of water include agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities
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Computer Simulation
Computer simulations reproduce the behavior of a system using a mathematical model. Computer simulations have become a useful tool for the mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics (computational physics), astrophysics, climatology, chemistry and biology, human systems in economics, psychology, social science, and engineering. Simulation of a system is represented as the running of the system's model. It can be used to explore and gain new insights into new technology and to estimate the performance of systems too complex for analytical solutions.[1] Computer simulations are computer programs that can be either small, running almost instantly on small devices, or large-scale programs that run for hours or days on network-based groups of computers. The scale of events being simulated by computer simulations has far exceeded anything possible (or perhaps even imaginable) using traditional paper-and-pencil mathematical modeling
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Field Work
Field research
Field research
or fieldwork is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting. The approaches and methods used in field research vary across disciplines. For example, biologists who conduct field research may simply observe animals interacting with their environments, whereas social scientists conducting field research may interview or observe people in their natural environments to learn their languages, folklore, and social structures. Field research
Field research
involves a range of well-defined, although variable, methods: informal interviews, direct observation, participation in the life of the group, collective discussions, analyses of personal documents produced within the group, self-analysis, results from activities undertaken off- or on-line, and life-histories
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Eroded
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it away to another location[1] (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement). This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, water, ice (glaciers), snow, air (wind), plants, animals, and humans. In accordance with these agents, erosion is sometimes divided into water erosion, glacial erosion, snow erosion, wind (aeolic) erosion, zoogenic erosion, and anthropogenic erosion[2].The particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion; this contrasts with chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by its dissolving into a solvent (typically water), followed by the flow away of that solution
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Academic Discipline
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge. It incorporates expertise, people, projects, communities, challenges, studies, inquiry, and research areas that are strongly associated with a given scholastic subject area or college department. For example, the branches of science are commonly referred to as the scientific disciplines, e.g. physics, mathematics, and biology. Individuals associated with academic disciplines are commonly referred to as experts or specialists
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Physical Experiment
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis. Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results. There also exists natural experimental studies. A child may carry out basic experiments to understand gravity, while teams of scientists may take years of systematic investigation to advance their understanding of a phenomenon. Experiments and other types of hands-on activities are very important to student learning in the science classroom. Experiments can raise test scores and help a student become more engaged and interested in the material they are learning, especially when used over time.[1] Experiments can vary from personal and informal natural comparisons (e.g. tasting a range of chocolates to find a favorite), to highly controlled (e.g
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Solid Earth
Solid earth refers to "the earth beneath our feet" or terra firma, the planet's solid surface and its interior.[1]:v[2]:1 It contrasts with the Earth's fluid envelopes, the atmosphere and hydrosphere (but includes the ocean basin), as well as the biosphere and interactions with the sun. It includes the liquid core.[citation needed] Solid-earth science refers to the corresponding methods of study, a subset of Earth
Earth
sciences, predominantly geophysics and geology, excluding aeronomy, atmospheric sciences, oceanography, hydrology, and ecology. See also[edit]Geosphere Lithosphere Pedosphere Structure of the EarthReferences[edit]^ National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on Solid Earth
Earth
Problems (1964). Solid-earth Geophysics: Survey and Outlook. National Academies.  ^ Council, National Research (1993)
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Mining
Mining
Mining
is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Mining
Mining
is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining
Mining
in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water. Mining
Mining
of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times
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