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Geologist
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth
Earth
as well as the processes that shape it. Geologists usually study geology, although backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology, and other sciences are also useful. Field work
Field work
is an important component of geology, although many subdisciplines incorporate laboratory work. Geologists work in the energy and mining sectors searching for natural resources such as petroleum, natural gas, and precious metals. They are also in the forefront of preventing and mitigating damage from natural hazards and disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis and landslides. Their studies are used to warn the general public of the occurrence of these events
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Palaeontology
Paleontology
Paleontology
or palaeontology (/ˌpeɪliɒnˈtɒlədʒi, ˌpæli-, -ən-/) is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene
Holocene
Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology). Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier's work on comparative anatomy, and developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, palaios, "old, ancient", ὄν, on (gen
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Allegheny Mountains
The Allegheny Mountain Range /ælɪˈɡeɪni/, informally the Alleghenies and also spelled Alleghany and Allegany, is part of the vast Appalachian Mountain Range of the eastern United States and Canada
Canada
and posed a significant barrier to land travel in less technologically advanced eras. The barrier range has a northeast–southwest orientation and runs for about 400 miles (640 km) from north-central Pennsylvania, through western Maryland
Maryland
and eastern West Virginia, to southwestern Virginia. The Alleghenies comprise the rugged western-central portion of the Appalachians. They rise to approximately 4,862 feet (1,483 m) in northeastern West Virginia. In the east, they are dominated by a high, steep escarpment known as the Allegheny Front. In the west, they slope down into the closely associated Allegheny Plateau, which extends into Ohio
Ohio
and Kentucky
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Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification). It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic rocks
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Mineralogy
Mineralogy[n 1] is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts
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Royal Society Of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(/ˈɛdɪnb(ə)rə/ ( listen);[6][7][8] Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann [ˈt̪uːn ˈeːtʲən̪ˠ]; Scots: Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland
Scotland
and one of its 32 council areas. It is located in Lothian
Lothian
on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland
Scotland
since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland. The city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the Monarchy in Scotland. Historically part of the county of Midlothian, the city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scots law, literature, the sciences and engineering
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Sediment
Sediment
Sediment
is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. For example, sand and silt can be carried in suspension in river water and on reaching the sea be deposited by sedimentation and if buried, may eventually become sandstone and siltstone (sedimentary rocks). Sediments are most often transported by water (fluvial processes), but also wind (aeolian processes) and glaciers. Beach sands and river channel deposits are examples of fluvial transport and deposition, though sediment also often settles out of slow-moving or standing water in lakes and oceans. Desert sand dunes and loess are examples of aeolian transport and deposition
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Plutonism
Plutonism (or volcanism) is the geologic theory that the igneous rocks forming the Earth originated from intrusive magmatic activity, with a continuing gradual process of weathering and erosion wearing away rocks, which were then deposited on the sea bed, re-formed into layers of sedimentary rock by heat and pressure, and raised again. It proposes that basalt is solidified molten magma. The name "Plutonism" references Pluto, the classical ruler of the underworld, while "volcanism" echoes the name of Vulcan, the ancient Roman god of fire and volcanoes
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Neptunism
Neptunism, a superseded scientific theory of geology proposed by Abraham Gottlob Werner
Abraham Gottlob Werner
(1749-1817) in the late 18th century, proposed rocks formed from the crystallisation of minerals in the early Earth's oceans. The theory took its name from Neptune, the ancient Roman god of the sea
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William Henry Jackson
William Henry Jackson (April 4, 1843 – June 30, 1942) was an American painter, Civil War veteran, geological survey photographer and an explorer famous for his images of the American West. He was a great-great nephew of Samuel Wilson, the progenitor of America's national symbol Uncle Sam.[1][2]Contents1 Early life 2 Career as photographer 3 Career as a painter 4 Career as publisher 5 Later life 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links10.1 Photo archives and exhibitions10.1.1 Library of Congress 10.1.2 Other archives and libraries10.2 Other linksEarly life[edit] Jackson was born in Keeseville, New York, on April 4, 1843,[3][4] the first of seven children born to George Hallock Jackson and Harriet Maria Allen. Harriet, a talented water-colorist, was a graduate of the Troy Female Academy, later the Emma Willard School. Painting was his passion from a young age
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American Philosophical Society
The American Philosophical Society
American Philosophical Society
(APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach. Considered the first learned society in the United States, it has played an important role in American cultural and intellectual life for over 270 years. Through research grants, published journals, the American Philosophical Society Museum, an extensive library, and regular meetings, the society continues to advance a variety of disciplines in the humanities and the sciences
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Landslides
A landslide, also known as a landslip[1] or mudslide,[citation needed] is a form of mass wasting that includes a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep failure of slopes, and shallow debris flows. Landslides can occur underwater, called a submarine landslide, coastal and onshore environments
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Sir Charles Lyell
Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, FRS (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton. He is best known as the author of Principles of Geology, which presented uniformitarianism–the idea that the Earth was shaped by the same scientific processes still in operation today–to the broad general public. Principles of Geology also challenged theories popularised by Georges Cuvier, which were the most accepted and circulated ideas about geology in Europe at the time.[1] His scientific contributions included an explanation of earthquakes, the theory of gradual "backed up-building" of volcanoes, and in stratigraphy the division of the Tertiary period into the Pliocene, Miocene, and Eocene. He also coined the currently-used names for geological eras, Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic
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Principles Of Geology
Principles of Geology: being an attempt to explain the former changes of the Earth's surface, by reference to causes now in operation is a book by the Scottish geologist Charles Lyell that was first published in 3 volumes from 1830–1833. Lyell used the theory of Uniformitarianism to describe how the Earth's surface was changing over time[3]. This theory was in direct contrast to the geological theory of Catastrophism[3]. Many individuals believed in catastrophism to allow room for religious beliefs
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Charles Darwin
Tertiary education: University of Edinburgh Medical School
University of Edinburgh Medical School
(medicine, no degree) Christ's College, Cambridge
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History Of Earth
The history of Earth
Earth
concerns the development of planet Earth
Earth
from its formation to the present day.[1][2] Nearly all branches of natural science have contributed to understanding of the main events of Earth's past, characterized by constant geological change and biological evolution. The geological time scale (GTS), as defined by international convention,[3] depicts the large spans of time from the beginning of the Earth
Earth
to the present, and its divisions chronicle some definitive events of Earth
Earth
history. (In the graphic: Ga means "billion years ago"; Ma, "million years ago".) Earth
Earth
formed around 4.54 billion years ago, approximately one-third the age of the universe, by accretion from the solar nebula.[4][5][6] Volcanic outgassing probably created the primordial atmosphere and then the ocean, but the early atmosphere contained almost no oxygen
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