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Geolocation
Geolocation
Geolocation
is the identification or estimation of the real-world geographic location of an object, such as a radar source, mobile phone, or Internet-connected computer terminal. In its simplest form geolocation involves the generation of a set of geographic coordinates and is closely related to the use of positioning systems, but its usefulness is enhanced by the use of these coordinates to determine a meaningful location, such as a street address. For either geolocating or positioning, the locating engine often uses radio frequency (RF) location methods, for example Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) for precision. TDOA
TDOA
systems often use mapping displays or other geographic information system
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Mobile Phone
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, and, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones, in North America. In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet
Internet
access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, video games, and digital photography
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Microchip Implant (animal)
A microchip implant is an identifying integrated circuit placed under the skin of an animal. The chip, about the size of a large grain of rice, uses passive RFID
RFID
(Radio Frequency Identification) technology, and is also known as a PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tag. Externally attached microchips such as RFID
RFID
ear tags are commonly used to identify farm and ranch animals, with the exception of horses
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Latitude
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude
Latitude
is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator
Equator
to 90° ( North
North
or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude
Latitude
is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. Without qualification the term latitude should be taken to be the geodetic latitude as defined in the following sections
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Longitude
Longitude
Longitude
(/ˈlɒndʒɪtjuːd/ or /ˈlɒndʒɪtuːd/, Australian and British also /ˈlɒŋɡɪtjuːd/),[1][2] is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees and denoted by the Greek letter lambda (λ). Meridians (lines running from the North Pole
North Pole
to the South Pole) connect points with the same longitude. By convention, one of these, the Prime Meridian, which passes through the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England, was allocated the position of zero degrees longitude. The longitude of other places is measured as the angle east or west from the Prime Meridian, ranging from 0° at the Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
to +180° eastward and −180° westward
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Time Zone
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. Time
Time
zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time
Time
(UTC) by a whole number of hours ( UTC−12
UTC−12
to UTC+14), but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes (e.g. Newfoundland Standard Time is UTC−03:30, Nepal
Nepal
Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:45, and Indian Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:30). Some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year, typically by adjusting local clock time by an hour
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Crowdsourcing
Crowdsourcing is a sourcing model in which individuals or organizations obtain goods and services, including ideas and finances, from a large, relatively open and often rapidly-evolving group of internet users; it divides work between participants to achieve a cumulative result. The word crowdsourcing itself is a portmanteau of crowd and outsourcing, and was coined in 2005.[1][2][3][4] As a mode of sourcing, crowdsourcing existed prior to the digital age (i.e. "offline").[5] Major differences between crowdsourcing and outsourcing include features such as: crowdsourcing comes from a less-specific, more public group (i.e
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Google Earth
Google
Google
Earth
Earth
is a computer program that renders a 3D representation of Earth
Earth
based on satellite imagery. The program maps the Earth
Earth
by superimposing satellite images, aerial photography, and GIS data onto a 3D globe, allowing users to see cities and landscapes from various angles. Users can explore the globe by entering addresses and coordinates, or by using a keyboard or mouse. The program can also be downloaded on a smartphone or tablet, using a touch screen or stylus to navigate. Users may use the program to add their own data using Keyhole Markup Language and upload them through various sources, such as forums or blogs
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Bellingcat
Bellingcat
Bellingcat
(also rendered bell¿ngcat) is a website founded by the British citizen journalist Eliot Higgins. Bellingcat
Bellingcat
publishes the findings of citizen journalist investigations into war and the criminal underground. The site's contributors also publish guides to their techniques, as well as case studies.[1] Bellingcat
Bellingcat
began as an investigation of the use of weapons in the Syrian civil war
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Biology
Biology
Biology
is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.[1] Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches. Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology
Biology
recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy[2] to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis
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Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
(from Greek: οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of")[A] is the branch of biology[1] which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment. Objects of study include interactions of organisms with each other and with abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. Ecosystems
Ecosystems
are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem
Ecosystem
processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits
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Datalogger
A data logger (also datalogger or data recorder) is an electronic device that records data over time or in relation to location either with a built in instrument or sensor or via external instruments and sensors. Increasingly, but not entirely, they are based on a digital processor (or computer). They generally are small, battery powered, portable, and equipped with a microprocessor, internal memory for data storage, and sensors. Some data loggers interface with a personal computer, and use software to activate the data logger and view and analyze the collected data, while others have a local interface device (keypad, LCD) and can be used as a stand-alone device. Data loggers vary between general purpose types for a range of measurement applications to very specific devices for measuring in one environment or application type only. It is common for general purpose types to be programmable; however, many remain as static machines with only a limited number or no changeable parameters
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Canvas Fingerprinting
Canvas fingerprinting is one of a number of browser fingerprinting techniques of tracking online users that allow websites to identify and track visitors using HTML5 canvas element instead of browser cookies or other similar means. The technique received wide media coverage in 2014[1][2][3][4] after researchers from Princeton University and KU Leuven University described it in their paper The Web never forgets.[5]Contents1 Description1.1 Uniqueness2 Mitigation 3 History 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit] Canvas fingerprinting works by exploiting the HTML5 canvas element. As described by Acar et. al. in [5]:When a user visits a page, the fingerprinting script first draws text with the font and size of its choice and adds background colors (1). Next, the script calls Canvas API’s ToDataURL method to get the canvas pixel data in dataURL format (2), which is basically a Base64 encoded representation of the binary pixel data
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ISO 3166
ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states). The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions.Contents1 Parts 2 Editions 3 ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency3.1 Members4 See also 5 References 6 External linksParts[edit] It consists of three parts:[1]ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 1: Country
Country
codes, defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest
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Federal Information Processing Standards
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the United States federal government
United States federal government
for use in computer systems by non-military government agencies and government contractors.[1] FIPS standards are issued to es
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INSEE
The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), abbreviated INSEE (French pronunciation: ​[inse]), is the French national statistics bureau. It collects and publishes information about the French economy and people, and carries out the periodic national census. Headquartered in Paris, it is the French branch of Eurostat. The INSEE was created in 1946 as a successor to the Vichy regime's National Statistics Service (SNS).Contents1 Purpose 2 Organisation2.1 Teaching and research3 Codes and numbering system 4 History4.1 Statistics in France
France
before INSEE 4.2 Creation of INSEE 4.3 List of directors5 See also 6 References 7 External linksPurpose[edit] INSEE is responsible for the production and analysis of official statistics in France
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