HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff

picture info

Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.[1][2] It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. The father of genetics is Gregor Mendel, a late 19th-century scientist and Augustinian
Augustinian
friar. Mendel studied "trait inheritance", patterns in the way traits are handed down from parents to offspring. He observed that organisms (pea plants) inherit traits by way of discrete "units of inheritance". This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of what is referred to as a gene. Trait inheritance and molecular inheritance mechanisms of genes are still primary principles of genetics in the 21st century, but modern genetics has expanded beyond inheritance to studying the function and behavior of genes
[...More...]

picture info

Augustinian
Catholicism portal Philosophy portalThe term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
(354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders and some Anglican religious orders. Within Anglicanism the Rule of St. Augustine is followed only by women, who form several different communities of Augustinian nuns
Augustinian nuns
in the Anglican Communion. Within Roman Catholicism Augustinians
Augustinians
may be members of either one of two separate and distinct types of Order:Several mendicant Orders of friars, who lived a mixed religious life of contemplation and apostolic ministry and follow the Rule of St. Augustine, a brief document providing guidelines for living in a religious community. The largest and most familiar, originally known as the Hermits of St
[...More...]

picture info

Friar
A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability. The most significant orders of friars are the Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians
Augustinians
and Carmelites.[1]Contents1 Definition 2 Etymology 3 Orders3.1 Major Orders 3.2 Lesser orders4 Uses by other Christian traditions 5 Other usage of the name 6 See also 7 ReferencesDefinition[edit] Friars are different from monks in that they are called to live the evangelical counsels (vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience) in service to society, rather than through cloistered asceticism and devotion
[...More...]

picture info

Information System
An information system (IS) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information. More specifically, it is the study of complementary networks that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data. "An information system (IS) is a group of components that interact to produce information
[...More...]

picture info

Organism
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life. It is a synonym for "life form". Organisms are classified by taxonomy into specified groups such as the multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms such as a protists, bacteria, and archaea.[1] All types of organisms are capable of reproduction, growth and development, maintenance, and some degree of response to stimuli. Humans are multicellular animals composed of many trillions of cells which differentiate during development into specialized tissues and organs. An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote
[...More...]

picture info

Biomolecule
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.[1] Biomolecules include large macromolecules (or polyanions) such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products. A more general name for this class of material is biological materials. Biomolecules are usually endogenous but may also be exogenous. For example, pharmaceutical drugs may be natural products or semisynthetic (biopharmaceuticals) or they may be totally synthetic. Biology
Biology
and its subsets of biochemistry and molecular biology study biomolecules and their reactions. Most biomolecules are organic compounds, and just four elements—oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen—make up 96% of the human body's mass
[...More...]

picture info

Immunology
Immunology
Immunology
is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.[1] Immunology
Immunology
charts, measures, and contextualizes the: physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and diseases; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (such as autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, and transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo
[...More...]

picture info

Phytochemistry
Phytochemistry
Phytochemistry
is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants. Those studying phytochemistry strive to describe the structures of the large number of secondary metabolic compounds found in plants, the functions of these compounds in human and plant biology, and the biosynthesis of these compounds. Plants synthesize phytochemicals for many reasons, including to protect themselves against insect attacks and plant diseases. Phytochemicals in food plants are often active in human biology, and in many cases have health benefits.[1] The compounds found in plants are of many kinds, but most are in four major biochemical classes, the alkaloids, glycosides, polyphenols, and terpenes. Phytochemistry
Phytochemistry
can be considered sub-fields of botany or chemistry. Activities can be led in botanical gardens or in the wild with the aid of ethnobotany
[...More...]

picture info

Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolism
(/məˈtæbəlɪzəm/, from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are: the conversion of food to energy to run cellular processes; the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates; and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments
[...More...]

picture info

Genetic Variation
Genetic variation
Genetic variation
describes the difference in DNA
DNA
among individuals[2]. There are multiple sources of genetic variation, including Mutation
Mutation
and Genetic recombination. Contents1 Among individuals within a population 2 Between populations 3 Measurement 4 Sources 5 Forms 6 Maintenance in populations 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksAmong individuals within a population[edit] Genetic variation
Genetic variation
can be identified at a many levels
[...More...]

picture info

Phenotypic Trait
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.[1] For example, eye color is a character of an organism, while blue, brown and hazel are traits.Contents1 Definition 2 Genetic origin of traits in diploid organisms 3 Mendelian expression of genes in diploid organisms 4 Biochemistry
Biochemistry
of dominance and extensions to expression of traits 5 Schizotypy 6 See also 7 Citations 8 ReferencesDefinition[edit] A phenotypic trait is an obvious, observable, and measurable trait; it is the expression of genes in an observable way. An example of a phenotypic trait is hair color. Underlying genes, which make up the genotype, determine the hair color, but the hair color observed is the phenotype
[...More...]

picture info

Cell (biology)
The cell (from Latin
Latin
cella, meaning "small room"[1]) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the "building blocks of life"
[...More...]

picture info

Enzymology
Enzymes /ˈɛnzaɪmz/ are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life.[1]:8.1 Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties.[2][3] Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types.[4] Most enzymes are proteins, although a few are catalytic RNA molecules. The latter are called ribozymes
[...More...]

picture info

Structural Biology
Structural biology
Structural biology
is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules (especially proteins, made up of amino acids, and RNA or DNA, made up of nucleic acids), how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function.[1] This subject is of great interest to biologists because macromolecules carry out most of the functions of cells, and it is only by coiling into specific three-dimensional shapes that they are able to perform these functions. This architecture, the "tertiary structure" of molecules, depends in a complicated way on each molecule's basic composition, or "primary structure."Hemoglobin, the oxygen transporting protein found in red blood cellsBiomolecules are too small to see in detail even with the most advanced light microscopes
[...More...]

picture info

Outline Of Biochemistry
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biochemistry: Biochemistry
Biochemistry
– study of chemical processes in living organisms, including living matter. Biochemistry
Biochemistry
governs all living organisms and living processes.Contents1 Applications of biochemistry 2 Branches of biochemistry2.1 Main branches 2.2 Other branches3 History of biochemistry 4 General biochemistry concepts 5 Biochemical techniques5.1 Molecular genetics 5.2 Protein
Protein
purification 5.3 Structural determination 5.4 Interactions between biomolecules6 External linksApplications of biochemistry[edit]Testing Ames test
Ames test
– salmonella bacteria is exposed to a chemical under question (a food additive, for example), and changes in the way the bacteria grows are measured
[...More...]

picture info

Index Of Biochemistry Articles
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms
[...More...]

.