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Genetically Modified
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism). GMOs are used to produce many medications and genetically modified foods and are widely used in scientific research and the production of other goods. The term GMO is very close to the technical legal term, 'living modified organism', defined in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, which regulates international trade in living GMOs (specifically, "any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology"). A more specifically defined type of GMO is a "transgenic organism." This is an organism whose genetic makeup has been altered by the addition of genetic material from an unrelated organism
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Genentech
Genentech, Inc., is a biotechnology corporation which became a subsidiary of Roche in 2009. Genentech
Genentech
Research and Early Development operates as an independent center within Roche.[1] As of September 2017, Genentech
Genentech
employed 15,064 people.[2]Contents1 History 2 Research 3 Facilities 4 Genentech
Genentech
Inc Political Action Committee 5 Controversy5.1 Disputes6 Products Timeline 7 Awards and recognitions 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksHistory[edit] The company was founded in 1976 by venture capitalist Robert A. Swanson and biochemist Herbert Boyer.[3][4] Boyer is considered to be a pioneer in the field of recombinant DNA
DNA
technology
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Plasmid
A plasmid is a small DNA
DNA
molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA
DNA
and can replicate independently. They are most commonly found as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules in bacteria; however, plasmids are sometimes present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms. In nature, plasmids often carry genes that may benefit the survival of the organism, for example antibiotic resistance. While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful to the organism under certain situations or particular conditions. Artificial plasmids are widely used as vectors in molecular cloning, serving to drive the replication of recombinant DNA sequences within host organisms
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Selective Breeding
Selective breeding
Selective breeding
(also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together. Domesticated animals are known as breeds, normally bred by a professional breeder, while domesticated plants are known as varieties, cultigens, or cultivars. Two purebred animals of different breeds produce a crossbreed, and crossbred plants are called hybrids. Flowers, vegetables and fruit-trees may be bred by amateurs and commercial or non-commercial professionals: major crops are usually the provenance of the professionals. In animal breeding, techniques such as inbreeding, linebreeding, and outcrossing are utilized
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Natural Selection
Natural selection
Natural selection
is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype. It is a key mechanism of evolution, the change in the heritable traits characteristic of a population over generations. Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
popularised the term "natural selection", contrasting it with artificial selection, which is intentional, whereas natural selection is not. Variation exists within all populations of organisms. This occurs partly because random mutations arise in the genome of an individual organism, and offspring can inherit such mutations. Throughout the lives of the individuals, their genomes interact with their environments to cause variations in traits
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˈkliːɪk, -ˈkleɪ.ɪk/ ( listen);[1] DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.[2][3] Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group
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Paul Berg
Paul Berg
Paul Berg
(born June 30, 1926) is an American biochemist and professor emeritus at Stanford University. He was the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1980, along with Walter Gilbert
Walter Gilbert
and Frederick Sanger.[4][5][6] The award recognized their contributions to basic research involving nucleic acids. Berg received his undergraduate education at Penn State University, where he majored in biochemistry. He received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from Case Western Reserve University in 1952. Berg worked as a professor at Washington University School of Medicine and Stanford University
Stanford University
School of Medicine, in addition to serving as the director of the Beckman Center for Molecular and Genetic Medicine
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Lambda Phage
Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage, coliphage λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli
(E. coli). It was discovered by Esther Lederberg
Esther Lederberg
in 1950 when she noticed that streaks of mixtures of two E. coli strains, one of which treated with ultraviolet light, was "nibbled and plaqued".[1][2] The wild type of this virus has a temperate lifecycle that allows it to either reside within the genome of its host through lysogeny or enter into a lytic phase (during which it kills and lyses the cell to produce offspring); mutant strains are unable to lysogenize cells – instead, they grow and enter the lytic cycle after superinfecting an already lysogenized cell.[3] The phage particle consists of a head (also known as a capsid), a tail, and tail fibers (see image of virus below)
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Kanamycin
Kanamycin
Kanamycin
A, often referred to as simple kanamycin, is an antibiotic used to treat severe bacterial infections and tuberculosis.[1] It is not a first line treatment.[1] It is used by mouth, injection into a vein, or injection into a muscle.[1] Kanamycin
Kanamycin
is recommended for short-term
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Xenopus Laevis
The African clawed frog
African clawed frog
( Xenopus
Xenopus
laevis, also known as the xenopus, African clawed toad, African claw-toed frog or the platanna) is a species of African aquatic frog of the family Pipidae. Its name is derived from the three short claws on each hind foot, which it uses to tear apart its food. The word Xenopus
Xenopus
means "strange foot" and laevis means "smooth". The species is found throughout much of Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
(Nigeria and Sudan
Sudan
to South Africa),[2] and in isolated, introduced populations in North America, South America, and Europe.[1] All species of the family Pipidae
Pipidae
are tongueless, toothless and completely aquatic. They use their hands to shove food in their mouths and down their throats and a hyobranchial pump to draw or suck things in their mouth
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Stanley Norman Cohen
Stanley Norman Cohen
Stanley Norman Cohen
(born February 17, 1935 in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, United States) is an American geneticist[2] and the Kwoh-Ting Li Professor in the Stanford University
Stanford University
School of Medici
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Kingdom (biology)
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain. Kingdoms are divided into smaller groups called phyla. Traditionally, some textbooks from the United States
United States
used a system of six kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaea/Archaeabacteria, and Bacteria/Eubacteria) while textbooks in countries like Great Britain, India, Greece, Australia, Latin
Latin
America and other countries used five kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista
Protista
and Monera)
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Oncogenes
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.[1] In tumor cells, they are often mutated and/or expressed at high levels.[2] Most normal cells will undergo a programmed form of rapid cell death (apoptosis) when critical functions are altered and malfunctioning. Activated oncogenes can cause those cells designated for apoptosis to survive and proliferate instead.[3] Most oncogenes began as proto-oncogenes, normal genes involved in cell growth and proliferation or inhibition of apoptosis. If normal genes promoting cellular growth, through mutation, are up-regulated, (gain of function mutation) they will predispose the cell to cancer and are thus termed oncogenes. Usually multiple oncogenes, along with mutated apoptotic and/or tumor suppressor genes will all act in concert to cause cancer. Since the 1970s, dozens of oncogenes have been identified in human cancer
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Michael W. Bevan
Michael Webster Bevan FRS (born 5 June 1952)[1] is a Professor at the John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK.[4][5][6][7] Contents1 Education 2 Research and career 3 Awards and honours 4 ReferencesEducation[edit] Bevan was educated at the University of Auckland
University of Auckland
where he was awarded a Bachelor of Science in 1973 and a Master of Science in 1974. He went on to study at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, where he was awarded a PhD in 1979 for work on differentiation in plant tissue cultures.[8] Research and career[edit] Following his PhD, Bevan did postdoctoral research with Mary-Dell Chilton at Washington University in St. Louis[9][10][11][12] where he identified ways to make functional chimaeric genes based on knowledge of gene function.[4] Bevan returned to the UK at the Plant Breeding Institute, Cambridge[13][14] in 1980, part of the Agricultural and Food Research Council (AFRC)
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Richard B. Flavell
Richard Bailey Flavell CBE, FRS (born 11 October 1943) is a British molecular biologist, Chief Scientific Officer of Ceres, Inc., and was director of John Innes Centre
John Innes Centre
from 1987 to 1998.[1] Life[edit] He was educated at the University of Birmingham
University of Birmingham
(BSc, 1964 in Microbiology) and at the University of East Anglia
University of East Anglia
(PhD, 1967 focused on the genetics of acetate utilization in Neurospora crassa). Following that he held a Postdoctoral Fellowship at Stanford University, Stanford, California, 1967-69 where he studied mitochondrial structure and function in Neurospora crassa. He then took up an appointment at the Plant Breeding Institute, Cambridge, England in the Department of Cytogenetics under the leadership of Sir Ralph Riley
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Agrobacterium Tumefaciens
Agrobacterium
Agrobacterium
tumefaciens (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium
Agrobacterium
radiobacter)[2][3][4] is the causal agent of crown gall disease (the formation of tumours) in over 140 species of eudicots. It is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative
Gram-negative
soil bacterium.[1] Symptoms are caused by the insertion of a small segment of DNA
DNA
(known as the T-DNA, for 'transfer DNA', not to be confused with tRNA that transfers amino acids during protein synthesis, confusingly also called transfer RNA), from a plasmid, into the plant cell,[5] which is incorporated at a semi-random location into the plant genome. A. tumefaciens is an alphaproteobacterium of the family Rhizobiaceae, which includes the nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts
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