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General Purpose Computer A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer assisted design, and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms [...More...]  "General Purpose Computer" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Computer (other) A computer is a programmable machine that receives input, stores and manipulates data, and provides output in a useful format. Computer Computer may also refer to: Computer Computer (magazine), an IEEE [...More...]  "Computer (other)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Roman Abacus The Ancient Romans developed the Roman hand abacus, a portable, but less capable, base10 version of the previous Babylonian abacus. It was the first portable calculating device for engineers, merchants and presumably tax collectors. It greatly reduced the time needed to perform the basic operations of arithmetic using Roman numerals. As Karl Menninger says on page 315 of his book,[1] "For more extensive and complicated calculations, such as those involved in Roman land surveys, there was, in addition to the hand abacus, a true reckoning board with unattached counters or pebbles. The Etruscan cameo and the Greek predecessors, such as the Salamis Tablet and the Darius Vase, give us a good idea of what it must have been like, although no actual specimens of the true Roman counting board are known to be extant. But language, the most reliable and conservative guardian of a past culture, has come to our rescue once more [...More...]  "Roman Abacus" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Touchscreen A touchscreen is an input and output device normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an information processing system. A user can give input or control the information processing system through simple or multitouch gestures by touching the screen with a special stylus or one or more fingers.[1] Some touchscreens use ordinary or specially coated gloves to work while others may only work using a special stylus or pen. The user can use the touchscreen to react to what is displayed and, if the software allows, to control how it is displayed; for example, zooming to increase the text size. The touchscreen enables the user to interact directly with what is displayed, rather than using a mouse, touchpad, or other such devices (other than a stylus, which is optional for most modern touchscreens). Touchscreens are common in devices such as game consoles, personal computers, electronic voting machines, and pointofsale (POS) systems [...More...]  "Touchscreen" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Turing Machine A Turing machine Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation that defines an abstract machine,[1] which manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules.[2] Despite the model's simplicity, given any computer algorithm, a Turing machine Turing machine capable of simulating that algorithm's logic can be constructed.[3] The machine operates on an infinite[4] memory tape divided into discrete cells.[5] The machine positions its head over a cell and "reads" (scans)[6] the symbol there [...More...]  "Turing Machine" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

History Of Computing Hardware The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers. Before the 20th century, most calculations were done by humans. Early mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations, such as the abacus, were called "calculating machines", called by proprietary names, or referred to as calculators. The machine operator was called the computer. The first aids to computation were purely mechanical devices which required the operator to set up the initial values of an elementary arithmetic operation, then manipulate the device to obtain the result. Later, computers represented numbers in a continuous form, for instance distance along a scale, rotation of a shaft, or a voltage. Numbers could also be represented in the form of digits, automatically manipulated by a mechanical mechanism. Although this approach generally required more complex mechanisms, it greatly increased the precision of results [...More...]  "History Of Computing Hardware" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Ishango Bone The Ishango bone is a bone tool, dated to the Upper Paleolithic Upper Paleolithic era. It is a dark brown length of bone, the fibula of a baboon,[2] with a sharp piece of quartz affixed to one end, perhaps for engraving [...More...]  "Ishango Bone" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Onetoone Correspondence In mathematics, a bijection, bijective function, or onetoone correspondence is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set. There are no unpaired elements. In mathematical terms, a bijective function f: X → Y is a onetoone (injective) and onto (surjective) mapping of a set X to a set Y. A bijection from the set X to the set Y has an inverse function from Y to X. If X and Y are finite sets, then the existence of a bijection means they have the same number of elements [...More...]  "Onetoone Correspondence" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Finger Counting Fingercounting, or dactylonomy, is the act of counting along one's fingers. Though marginalized in modern societies by Arabic numerals, formerly different systems flourished in many cultures,[Note 1][Note 2] including educated methods far more sophisticated than the onebyone finger count taught today in preschool education. Fingercounting can also serve as a form of manual communication, particularly in marketplace trading – including hand signaling during open outcry in floor trading – and also in games such as morra. Fingercounting varies between cultures and over time, and is studied by ethnomathematics. Cultural differences in counting are sometimes used as a shibboleth, particularly to distinguish nationalities in war time [...More...]  "Finger Counting" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Tally Stick A tally stick (or simply tally[1]) was an ancient memory aid device used to record and document numbers, quantities, or even messages. Tally sticks first appear as animal bones carved with notches during the Upper Paleolithic; a notable example is the Ishango Bone. Historical reference is made by Pliny the Elder Pliny the Elder (AD 23–79) about the best wood to use for tallies, and by Marco Polo Marco Polo (1254–1324) who mentions the use of the tally in China [...More...]  "Tally Stick" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Fertile Crescent The Fertile Crescent Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescentshaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer Sumer and [...More...]  "Fertile Crescent" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Counting Rods Counting rods Counting rods (traditional Chinese: 籌; simplified Chinese: 筹; pinyin: chóu; Japanese: 算木; rōmaji: sangi; Korean: sangaji) are small bars, typically 3–14 cm long, that were used by mathematicians for calculation in ancient East Asia. They are placed either horizontally or vertically to represent any integer or rational number. The written forms based on them are called rod numerals. They are a true positional numeral system with digits for 1–9 and a blank for 0, from the Warring states period (circa 475 BCE) to the 16th century.Contents1 History 2 Using counting rods2.1 Place value3 Rod numerals 4 Fractions 5 Rod calculus 6 Unicode 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit] Chinese arithmeticians used counting rods well over two thousand years ago [...More...]  "Counting Rods" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Suanpan The suanpan (simplified Chinese: 算盘; traditional Chinese: 算盤; pinyin: suànpán), also spelled suan pan or souanpan[1][2]) is an abacus of Chinese origin first described in a 190 CE book of the Eastern Han Dynasty, namely Supplementary Notes on the Art of Figures written by Xu Yue. However, the exact design of this suanpan is not known.[3] Usually, a suanpan is about 20 cm (8 in) tall and it comes in various widths depending on the application. It usually has more than seven rods. There are two beads on each rod in the upper deck and five beads on each rod in the bottom deck. This configuration is used for both decimal and hexadecimal computation. The beads are usually rounded and made of a hardwood. The beads are counted by moving them up or down towards the beam [...More...]  "Suanpan" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Babylonia Babylonia Babylonia (/ˌbæbəˈloʊniə, ˈloʊnjə/) was an ancient Akkadianspeaking state and cultural area based in centralsouthern Mesopotamia Mesopotamia (presentday Iraq). A small Amoriteruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained the minor administrative town of Babylon.[1] It was merely a small provincial town during the Akkadian Akkadian Empire (2335–2154 BC) but greatly expanded during the reign of Hammurabi Hammurabi in the first half of the 18th century BC and became a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi Hammurabi and afterwards, Babylonia Babylonia was called "the country of Akkad" (Māt Akkadī in Akkadian).[2][3] It was often involved in rivalry with the older state of Assyria Assyria to the north and Elam Elam to the east in Ancient Iran [...More...]  "Babylonia" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Data Data Data (/ˈdeɪtə/ DAYtə, /ˈdætə/ DATə, /ˈdɑːtə/ DAHtə)[1] is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. Data Data and information are often used interchangeably; however, the extent to which a set of data is informative to someone depends on the extent to which it is unexpected by that person [...More...]  "Data" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Counting House A counting house, or computing house is the building, room, office or suite in which a business firm carries on operations, particularly accounting. By a synecdoche, it has come to mean the accounting operations of a firm, however housed. The term is British in origin and is primarily used in the context of the 19th century or earlier periods.[citation needed] The term occurs in the wellknown English nursery rhyme "Sing a Song of Sixpence" [...More...]  "Counting House" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 