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General (Germany)
General
General
(German pronunciation: [ɡenəˈʁaːl]) is the highest rank of the German Army
German Army
and German Air Force. As a four-star rank it is the equivalent to the rank of admiral in the German Navy. The rank is rated OF-9 in NATO
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German Army (Wehrmacht)
6,550,000 (peak in 1943)Active: 4,250,000 Reserve: 2,300,00014,800,000 (total who served)[1]Part of Oberkommando des HeeresMotto(s) "Gott mit uns"Engagements Spanish Civil War World War IICommandersCommander-in-chief of the Army Adolf HitlerChief of the Armed Forces Wilhelm KeitelOther Commanders of the Army Ferdinand Schörner (30 April 1945 to 8 May 1945) Walther von Brauchitsch (4 February 1938 to 19 December 1941) Werner von Fritsch (Inception to 4 February 1938)InsigniaRanks and insignia Ranks and insignia of the Army Infantry
Infantry
u
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Baton (symbol)
The ceremonial baton is a short, thick stick-like object, typically in wood or metal, that is traditionally the sign of a field marshal or a similar very high-ranking military officer, and carried as a piece of their uniform. The baton is distinguished from the swagger stick in being thicker and effectively without any practical function. Unlike a staff of office, a baton is not rested on the ground. Unlike a royal sceptre, a baton is typically flat-ended, not crowned on one end with an eagle or globe.Contents1 Ancient world 2 Middle ages to early modern period 3 Nazi Germany 4 Modern 5 In heraldry 6 See also 7 ReferencesAncient world[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The origin of the military baton is unclear
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Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
(1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon
Napoleon
I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution
French Revolution
and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon; the Third Coalition
Third Coalition
(1805), the Fourth (1806–07), Fifth (1809), Sixth (1813), and the Seventh and final (1815). Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France
France
in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic; he subsequently created a state with stable finances, a strong bureaucracy, and a well-trained army
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General Der Pioniere
A combat engineer (also called field engineer, pioneer or sapper in many armies) is a soldier who performs a variety of construction and demolition tasks under combat conditions. The combat engineer's goals involve facilitating movement and support of friendly forces while impeding those of the enemy. Combat engineers build, repair and maintain buildings, roads and power supplies. They employ explosives for construction and demolition projects, and clear minefields using specialized vehicles. Such tasks typically include constructing and breaching trenches, tank traps and other fortifications, bunker construction, bridge and road construction or destruction, laying or clearing land mines, and other physical work in the battlefield
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Cavalry
Cavalry
Cavalry
(from French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry
Cavalry
were historically the most mobile of the combat arms. An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, horseman, dragoon or trooper. The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used other animals, such as camels, mules or elephants. Infantry
Infantry
who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons, a class of mounted infantry which later evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title. Cavalry
Cavalry
had the advantage of improved mobility, and a man fighting from horseback also had the advantages of greater height, speed, and inertial mass over an opponent on foot
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General Der Gebirgstruppe
The Imperial-Royal Mountain Troops
Imperial-Royal Mountain Troops
(German: Kaiserlich-königliche Gebirgstruppe) were founded in 1906 as part of the Austrian Landwehr, the territorial army of the Cisleithanian half of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. As a result, the abbreviation "k.k." (for kaiserlich österreichisch, königlich böhmisch or "Imperial Austrian, Royal Bohemian") was used and not "k.u.k." ("Imperial and Royal") which would have implied a connexion with the Hungarian half of the Empire. Proposed in a memorandum by Conrad von Hötzendorf, in February 1906 the War Ministry in Vienna
Vienna
convened a session on Alpine border security
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Field Marshal
Field marshal
Field marshal
(or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually it is the highest rank in an army, and when it is, few (if any) persons are appointed to it. It is considered as a five-star rank (OF-10) in modern-day armed forces in many countries. Promotion to the rank of field marshal in many countries historically required extraordinary military achievement by a general (a wartime victory). However, the rank has also been used as a divisional command rank and also as a brigade command rank
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German Empire
The German Empire
German Empire
(German: Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),[5][6][7][8] also known as Imperial Germany,[9] was the German nation state[10] that existed from the Unification of Germany
Unification of Germany
in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II
Wilhelm II
in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states joined the North German Confederation. On January 1st, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia
King of Prussia
from the Hohenzollern dynasty.[11] Berlin
Berlin
remained its capital. Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
remained Chancellor, the head of government
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Generaloberst
Generaloberst, in English Colonel General, was, in Germany and Austria-Hungary—the German Reichswehr
Reichswehr
and Wehrmacht, the Austro-Hungarian Common Army, and the East German
East German
National People's Army, as well as the respective police services—the second highest general officer rank, ranking above full general but below general field marshal. It was equivalent to Generaladmiral
Generaladmiral
in the Kriegsmarine until 1945, or to Flottenadmiral in the Volksmarine
Volksmarine
until 1990. The rank was the highest ordinary military rank and the highest military rank awarded in peacetime; the higher rank of general field marshal was only awarded in wartime by the head of state
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Bavaria
Anthem: Bayernhymne  (German) "Hymn of Bavaria"Coordinates: 48°46′39″N 11°25′52″E / 48.77750°N 11.43111°E / 48.77750; 11.43111Country GermanyCapital MunichGovernment • Body Landtag of Bavaria • Minister-President Markus Söder
Markus Söder
(CSU – Christian Social Union of Bavaria) • Governing party CSU • Bundesrat votes 6 (of 69)Area • Total 70,550.19 km2 (27,239.58 sq mi)Population (2016-12-31)[1
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Generalmajor
Generalmajor, short GenMaj, (English: major general) is a general officer rank in many countries, and is identical to and translated as major general. It is currently the third highest general officer rank in the German Army (Heer), German Air Force
German Air Force
(Luftwaffe). This rank is also used in the Austrian Armed Forces, but is abbreviated as GenMjr. Historically, German Army
German Army
ranks for their Generals prior to 1945 were offset by one from western nomenclature. Thus, prior to 1945 the Generalmajor rank in the German Army
German Army
was equivalent to the Brigadier General rank in the West, and so forth.Contents1 Rank 2 Rank insignia 3 Generalmajor of the Wehrmacht 4 See alsoRank[edit] The rank is rated OF-7 in NATO, and is grade B7 in the pay rules of the Federal Ministry of Defence
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Reichsmarschall
Reichsmarschall, Marshal
Marshal
of the Reich (literal translation: Empire or Realm), was the highest rank in the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
during World War II.[1]Contents1 History 2 Official standards 3 Rank insignia 4 References 5 BibliographyHistory[edit]The original baton of Reichsmarschall
Reichsmarschall
Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
shown in the West Point MuseumThe rank of Reichserzmarschall was originally created before the 12th century, during the time of the Holy Roman Empire
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Hermann Göring
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;[a] German: [ˈɡøːʁɪŋ] ( listen); 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP) that ruled Germany
Germany
from 1933 to 1945. A veteran World War I
World War I
fighter pilot ace, he was a recipient of the Pour le Mérite. He was the last commander of Jagdgeschwader 1, the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen. An early member of the Nazi Party, Göring was among those wounded in Adolf Hitler's failed Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch
in 1923. While receiving treatment for his injuries, he developed an addiction to morphine which persisted until the last year of his life
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Wehrmacht
The Wehrmacht (German pronunciation: [ˈveːɐ̯maxt] ( listen), lit. "defence force")[N 2] were the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
from 1935 to 1946. It consisted of the Heer (army), the Kriegsmarine
Kriegsmarine
(navy) and the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
(air force).[4] The designation Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
replaced the previously used term Reichswehr, and was the manifestation of Nazi Germany's efforts to rearm the nation to a greater extent than the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
permitted.[5] After the Nazi seizure of power
Nazi seizure of power
in 1933, one of Adolf Hitler's most overt and audacious moves was to establish the Wehrmacht, a modern armed force fully capable of offensive use
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