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Genera (operating System)
Genera is a commercial operating system and development environment for Lisp machines developed by Symbolics. It is essentially a fork of an earlier operating system originating on the MIT
MIT
AI Lab's Lisp machines which Symbolics
Symbolics
had used in common with LMI and Texas Instruments
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Software Developer
A software developer is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming, and testing of computer software. Other job titles which are often used with similar meanings are programmer, software analyst, and software engineer. According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development, and programming are more apparent. Already in the current market place there can be found a segregation between programmers and developers, being that one who implements is not the same as the one who designs the class structure or hierarchy. Even more so that developers become software architects or systems architects, those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system.[1] In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of only one of the phases above
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LispWorks
LispWorks is a commercial implementation and integrated development environment (IDE) for the Common Lisp programming language. LispWorks was developed by the UK software company Harlequin Ltd., and first published in 1989.[1] Harlequin ultimately spun off its Lisp arm as Xanalys, which took over management and rights to LispWorks. In January 2005, the Xanalys Lisp team formed LispWorks Ltd
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Debugger
A debugger or debugging tool is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs (the "target" program). The code to be examined might alternatively be running on an instruction set simulator (ISS), a technique that allows great power in its ability to halt when specific conditions are encountered, but which will typically be somewhat slower than executing the code directly on the appropriate (or the same) processor. Some debuggers offer two modes of operation, full or partial simulation, to limit this impact. A "trap" occurs when the program cannot normally continue because of a programming bug or invalid data. For example, the program might have tried to use an instruction not available on the current version of the CPU or attempted to access unavailable or protected memory
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Open Source
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.[1][2] A main principle of open-source software development is peer production, with products such as source code, blueprints, and documentation freely available to the public. The open-source movement in software began as a response to the limitations of proprietary code. The model is used for projects such as in open-source appropriate technology,[3] and open-source drug discovery.[4][5] Open source
Open source
promotes universal access via an open-source or free license to a product's design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint.[6][7] Before the phrase open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of other terms
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Lisp Machine
Lisp machines are general-purpose computers designed to efficiently run Lisp as their main software and programming language, usually via hardware support. They are an example of a high-level language computer architecture, and in a sense, they were the first commercial single-user workstations. Despite being modest in number (perhaps 7,000 units total as of 1988[1]), Lisp machines commercially pioneered many now-commonplace technologies – including effective garbage collection, laser printing, windowing systems, computer mice, high-resolution bit-mapped raster graphics, computer graphic rendering, and networking innovations like Chaosnet.[citation needed] Several firms built and sold Lisp machines in the 1980s: Symbolics (3600, 3640, XL1200, MacIvory, and other models), Lisp Machines Incorporated (LMI Lambda), Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
(Explorer and MicroExplorer), and Xerox
Xerox
(Interlisp-D workstations)
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CD-ROM
A CD-ROM
CD-ROM
/ˌsiːˌdiːˈrɒm/ is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data. The name is an acronym which stands for "Compact Disc Read-Only Memory". Computers can read CD-ROMs, but cannot write to CD-ROMs, which are not writable or erasable. During the 1990s, CD-ROMs were popularly used to distribute software for computers and video game consoles. Some CDs, called enhanced CDs, hold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being played on a CD player, while data (such as software or digital video) is only usable on a computer (such as ISO 9660[2] format PC CD-ROMs). The CD-ROM
CD-ROM
format was developed by Japanese company Denon
Denon
in 1982
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Common Lisp
Common Lisp (CL) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, published in ANSI standard document ANSI INCITS 226-1994 (R2004) (formerly X3.226-1994 (R1999)).[1] The Common Lisp HyperSpec, a hyperlinked HTML version, has been derived from the ANSI Common Lisp standard.[2] The Common Lisp language was developed as a standardized and improved successor of Maclisp. By the early 1980s several groups were already at work on diverse successors to MacLisp: Lisp Machine Lisp (aka ZetaLisp), Spice Lisp, NIL and S-1 Lisp. Common Lisp sought to unify, standardise, and extend the features of these MacLisp dialects
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Common Lisp Object System
The Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) is the facility for object-oriented programming which is part of ANSI Common Lisp. CLOS is a powerful dynamic object system which differs radically from the OOP facilities found in more static languages such as C++
C++
or Java. CLOS was inspired by earlier Lisp object systems such as MIT Flavors and CommonLOOPS, although it is more general than either. Originally proposed as an add-on, CLOS was adopted as part of the ANSI standard for Common Lisp and has been adapted into other Lisp dialects like EuLisp or Emacs Lisp.[1]Contents1 Features 2 Metaobject Protocol 3 Influences from older Lisp-based object systems 4 CLOS in other programming languages 5 References 6 LiteratureFeatures[edit] The basic building blocks of CLOS are classes and their methods, instances of those classes, and generic functions
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ZetaLisp
Lisp Machine Lisp is a dialect of the Lisp programming language. A direct descendant of Maclisp, it was initially developed in the mid to late 1970s as the systems programming language for the MIT Lisp machines. Lisp Machine Lisp was also the Lisp dialect with the most influence on the design of Common Lisp. Lisp Machine Lisp itself branched into three dialects. Symbolics
Symbolics
named their variant ZetaLisp. Lisp Machines, Inc. and later Texas Instruments (with the TI Explorer) would share a common code base, but their dialect of Lisp Machine Lisp would differ from the version maintained at the MIT AI Lab by Richard Stallman
Richard Stallman
and others. The Lisp Machine Manual describes the Lisp Machine Lisp language in detail
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Windowing System
In computing, a windowing system (or window system) is software that manages separately different parts of display screens.[1] It is a type of graphical user interface (GUI) which implements the WIMP (windows, icons, menus, pointer) paradigm for a user interface. Each currently running application is assigned a usually resizable and usually rectangular shaped surface of the display to present its graphical user interface to the user; these windows may overlap each other, as opposed to a tiling interface where they are not allowed to overlap. Usually a window decoration is drawn around each window
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Common Lisp Interface Manager
The Common Lisp Interface Manager (CLIM) is a Common Lisp-based programming interface for creating user interfaces — i.e., GUIs. It is a completely object-oriented User Interface Management System,[1] using the Common Lisp Object System and is based on the idea of stream input and output.[2] There are also facilities for output device independence. It is descended from the GUI
GUI
system Dynamic Windows[3] of Symbolics's Lisp machines[4] Main development was between 1988 and 1993. CLIM 2.0 was released in 1993. CLIM has been designed to be portable across different Common Lisp implementations and different window systems
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Allegro Common Lisp
Allegro Common Lisp is a commercial implementation of the Common Lisp programming language developed by Franz Inc. Allegro CL provides the full ANSI Common Lisp standard with many extensions[1][2] (threads, CLOS streams, CLOS MOP, Unicode, SSL streams, implementations of various Internet protocols, OpenGL interface and more). The first version of Allegro Common Lisp was finished at the end of 1986,[3] originally called Extended Common Lisp.[4] Allegro CL is available for Windows, Linux, Mac OS X
Mac OS X
and various Unix
Unix
platforms, supporting 32 or 64 bits. Internationalization support is based on Unicode. It supports various external text encodings and provides string and character types based on UCS-2
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McCLIM
McCLIM is a free software implementation of the Common Lisp Interface Manager. The project is named after Mike McDonald, the person who started it. External links[edit]CLIM 2.0 Specification as multiple HTML
HTML
pages (
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Emacs
Emacs
Emacs
/ˈiːmæks/ is a family of text editors that are characterized by their extensibility.[3] The manual for the most widely used variant,[4] GNU
GNU
Emacs, describes it as "the extensible, customizable, self-documenting, real-time display editor".[5] Development of the first Emacs
Emacs
began in the mid-1970s, and work on its direct descendant, GNU
GNU
Emacs, continues actively as of 2018[update]. Emacs
Emacs
has over 10,000 built-in commands (many of which are macros themselves) and its user interface allows the user to combine these commands into macros to automate work. Implementations of Emacs typically feature a dialect of the Lisp programming language
Lisp programming language
that provides a deep extension capability, allowing users and developers to write new commands and applications for the editor
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Type System
In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.[1] These types formalize and enforce the otherwise implicit categories the programmer uses for data structures and components (e.g. "string", "array of float", "function returning boolean"). The main purpose of a type system is to reduce possibilities for bugs in computer programs[2] by defining interfaces between different parts of a computer program, and then checking that the parts have been connected in a consistent way. This checking can happen statically (at compile time), dynamically (at run time), or as a combination of static and dynamic checking
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