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Gel Electrophoresis
Gel
Gel
electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA
RNA
and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge. It is used in clinical chemistry to separate proteins by charge and/or size (IEF agarose, essentially size independent) and in biochemistry and molecular biology to separate a mixed population of DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
fragments by length, to estimate the size of DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
fragments or to separate proteins by charge.[1] Nucleic acid
Nucleic acid
molecules are separated by applying an electric field to move the negatively charged molecules through a matrix of agarose or other substances. Shorter molecules move faster and migrate farther than longer ones because shorter molecules migrate more easily through the pores of the gel
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Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
Sodium
Sodium
dodecyl sulfate, synonymously sodium lauryl sulfate (or laurilsulfate; SDS or SLS, respectively), is a synthetic organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)11SO4Na. It is an anionic surfactant used in many cleaning and hygiene products. The sodium salt is of an organosulfate class of organics. It consists of a 12-carbon tail attached to a sulfate group, that is, it is the sodium salt of dodecyl hydrogen sulfate, the ester of dodecyl alcohol and sulfuric acid
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Cloning
In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects, plants or animals reproduce asexually. Cloning
Cloning
in biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA
DNA
fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms (organism cloning). The term also refers to the production of multiple copies of a product such as digital media or software. The term clone, invented by J. B. S. Haldane, is derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word κλών klōn, "twig", referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig
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Electromotive Force
Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted E displaystyle mathcal E and measured in volts),[1] is the electrical intensity or "pressure" developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator.[2] A device that converts other forms of energy into electrical energy (a "transducer") provides an emf at its output.[3] (The word "force" in this case is not used to mean mechanical force, as may be measured in pounds or newtons.) In electromagnetic induction, emf can be defined around a closed loop of conductor as the electromagnetic work that would be done on an electric charge (an electron in this instance) if it travels once around the loop.[4] For a time-varying magnetic flux linking a loop, the electric potential scalar field is not defined due to a circulating electric vector field, but an emf nevertheless does work that can be measured as a virtual electric potential around the loop.[5] (While electrical charges travel arou
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Galvanic Cell
A galvanic cell, or voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, or Alessandro Volta
Alessandro Volta
respectively, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell. It generally consists of two different metals connected by a salt bridge, or individual half-cells separated by a porous membrane. Volta was the inventor of the voltaic pile, the first electrical battery
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Neurotoxin
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).[3] Neurotoxins are an extensive class of exogenous chemical neurological insults[4] that can adversely affect function in both developing and mature nervous tissue.[5] The term can also be used to classify endogenous compounds, which, when abnormally contacted, can prove neurologically toxic.[4] Though neurotoxins are often neurologically destructive, their ability to specifically target neural components is important in the study of nervous systems.[6] Common examples of neurotoxins include lead,[7] ethanol (drinking alcohol), manganese[8] glutamate,[9] nitric oxide,[10] botulinum toxin (e.g
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Base (chemistry)
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali[1], change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions. Examples of bases are the hydroxides of the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, etc.). These particular substances produce hydroxide ions (OH−) in aqueous solutions, and are thus classified as Arrhenius bases. For a substance to be classified as an Arrhenius base, it must produce hydroxide ions in an aqueous solution. In order to do so, Arrhenius believed the base must contain hydroxide in the formula
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Polysaccharide
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin. Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks
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Polymer
A polymer (/ˈpɒlɪmər/;[2][3] Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Because of their broad range of properties,[4] both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life.[5] Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA
DNA
and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers
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Oligonucleotide
Oligonucleotides are short DNA
DNA
or RNA
RNA
molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics. Commonly made in the laboratory by solid-phase chemical synthesis, these small bits of nucleic acids can be manufactured as single-stranded molecules with any user-specified sequence, and so are vital for artificial gene synthesis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA
DNA
sequencing, library construction and as molecular probes. In nature, oligonucleotides are usually found as small RNA
RNA
molecules that function in the regulation of gene expression (e.g. microRNA), or are degradation intermediates derived from the breakdown of larger nucleic acid molecules. Oligonucleotides are characterized by the sequence of nucleotide residues that make up the entire molecule
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Nucleic Acid
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life. They are composed of nucleotides, which are monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. If the sugar is a compound ribose, the polymer is RNA
RNA
(ribonucleic acid); if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA
DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid). Nucleic acids are the most important of all biomolecules. They are found in abundance in all living things, where they function to create and encode and then store information in the nucleus of every living cell of every life-form organism on Earth. In turn, they function to transmit and express that information inside and outside the cell nucleus—to the interior operations of the cell and ultimately to the next generation of each living organism
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Seaweed
Seaweed
Seaweed
or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.[1] The term includes some types of red, brown, and green macroalgae. Seaweed
Seaweed
offer excellent opportunities for its industrial exploitation as they could be a source of multiple compounds (i.e. polysaccharides, proteins and phenols) with applications as food [2][3] and animal feed,[3] pharmaceuticals [4] or fertilizersContents1 Taxonomy 2 Structure 3 Ecology 4 Uses4.1 Food 4.2 Herbalism 4.3 Filtration 4.4 Other uses4.4.1 Photo essay showing women in Zanzibar, Tanzania farming seaweed and making seaweed soap5 Health risks 6 Genera 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksTaxonomy[edit] "Seaweed" is a colloquial term and lacks a formal definition. A seaweed may belong to one of several groups of multicellular algae: the red algae, green algae, and brown algae
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Base Pair
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds. They form the building blocks of the DNA double helix, and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA
DNA
and RNA. Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine) allow the DNA
DNA
helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is subtly dependent on its nucleotide sequence.[1] The complementary nature of this based-paired structure provides a backup copy of all genetic information encoded within double-stranded DNA
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Polyacrylamide
Polyacrylamide
Polyacrylamide
( IUPAC
IUPAC
poly(2-propenamide) or poly(1-carbamoylethylene), abbreviated as PAM) is a polymer (-CH2CHCONH2-) formed from acrylamide subunits. It can be synthesized as a simple linear-chain structure or cross-linked, typically using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. In the cross-linked form, the possibility of the monomer being present is reduced even further. It is highly water-absorbent, forming a soft gel when hydrated, used in such applications as polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and can also be called ghost crystals when cross-linked, and in manufacturing soft contact lenses. In the straight-chain form, it is also used as a thickener and suspending agent
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Immunology
Immunology
Immunology
is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.[1] Immunology
Immunology
charts, measures, and contextualizes the: physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and diseases; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (such as autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, and transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo
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DNA Sequencing
DNA
DNA
sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA
DNA
molecule. It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases—adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine—in a strand of DNA. The advent of rapid DNA
DNA
sequencing methods has greatly accelerated biological and medical research and discovery.[1] Knowledge of DNA
DNA
sequences has become indispensable for basic biological research, and in numerous applied fields such as medical diagnosis, biotechnology, forensic biology, virology and biological systematics
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