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Geis
In Irish , a GEAS (alternatives: GEIS, GéIS, DEAS; plural geasa) is an idiosyncratic taboo , whether of obligation or prohibition, similar to being under a vow . The plural is also used to mean specifically a spell prohibiting some action, common in Irish folklore and mythology. It is this additional meaning of the plural which the article discusses. The equivalent Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
word, also used in English, is "GEAS" ( , plural "geasan"). CONTENTS * 1 In Irish mythology
Irish mythology
* 2 Welsh mythology * 3 Parallels in English literature
English literature
* 4 See also * 5 References IN IRISH MYTHOLOGYA geas can be compared with a curse or, paradoxically, a gift. If someone under a geas violates the associated taboo, the infractor will suffer dishonor or even death. On the other hand, the observing of one's geas is believed to bring power
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Beira (mythology)
BEIRA is the name given by 20th-century folklorist Donald Alexander Mackenzie to the Cailleach
Cailleach
Bheur , the personification of winter and the mother of all the gods and goddesses in Scottish mythology
Scottish mythology
. She is associated with one of the Celtic creation myths (which usually pertain to local land features) and bears a similar role to Gaea in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
and Jord in Norse mythology
Norse mythology
. According to Mackenzie, Beira was a one-eyed giantess with white hair, dark blue skin, and rust-colored teeth. She built the mountains of Scotland using a magic hammer, and Loch Ness was created when Beira transformed her negligent maid Nessa into a river , which broke loose and made the loch. Ben Nevis
Ben Nevis
was her "mountain throne"
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Cailleach
In Gaelic mythology (Irish , Scottish and Manx ) the CAILLEACH (Irish pronunciation: , Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
pronunciation: ) is a divine hag , a creator deity and weather deity , and an ancestor deity. She is also commonly known as the CAILLEACH BHéARA(CH) or BHEUR(ACH). The word cailleach means "hag" in modern Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
, and has been applied to numerous mythological figures in Ireland
Ireland
, Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man
Isle of Man

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Barbarian
A BARBARIAN is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive . The designation is usually applied as generalization based on a popular stereotype ; barbarians can be any member of a nation judged by some to be less civilised or orderly (such as a tribal society ), but may also be part of a certain "primitive" cultural group (such as nomads ) or social class (such as bandits ) both within and outside one's own nation. Alternatively, they may instead be admired and romanticised as noble savages . In idiomatic or figurative usage, a "barbarian" may also be an individual reference to a brutal, cruel, warlike, insensitive person. The term originates from the Greek : βάρβαρος (barbaros pl. βάρβαροι barbaroi). In ancient times , the Greeks
Greeks
used it mostly for people of different cultures, but there are examples where one Greek city or state would use the word to attack another
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Arduinna
In Gallo-Roman religion
Gallo-Roman religion
, ARDUINNA (also Arduina, Arduinnae or Arduinne) was the eponymous tutelary goddess of the Ardennes
Ardennes
Forest and region, thought to be represented as a huntress riding a boar (primarily in the present-day regions of Belgium
Belgium
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
). Her cult originated in the Ardennes
Ardennes
region of present-day Belgium, Luxembourg, and France. She was identified with the Roman goddess Diana . CONTENTS * 1 Depictions * 2 Inscriptions * 3 Etymology * 4 Historical references * 5 Legacy * 6 References * 7 External links DEPICTIONSIn The Gods of the Celts, Miranda Green states that some depictions of Arduinna
Arduinna
show her riding a boar
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Macbeth
MACBETH (/məkˈbɛθ/ ; full title THE TRAGEDY OF MACBETH) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare ; it is thought to have been first performed in 1606 . It dramatises the damaging physical and psychological effects of political ambition on those who seek power for its own sake. Of all the plays that Shakespeare wrote during the reign of James I , who was patron of Shakespeare's acting company , Macbeth most clearly reflects the playwright's relationship with his sovereign. It was first published in the Folio of 1623 , possibly from a prompt book , and is Shakespeare's shortest tragedy. A brave Scottish general named Macbeth receives a prophecy from a trio of witches that one day he will become King of Scotland . Consumed by ambition and spurred to action by his wife, Macbeth murders King Duncan and takes the Scottish throne for himself. He is then wracked with guilt and paranoia
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Caesarean Section
CAESAREAN SECTION, also known as C-SECTION or CAESAREAN DELIVERY, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies . A caesarean section is often performed when a vaginal delivery would put the baby or mother at risk. This may include obstructed labour , twin pregnancy , high blood pressure in the mother, breech birth , problems with the placenta or umbilical cord . A caesarean delivery may be performed based upon the shape of the mother's pelvis or history of a previous C-section. A trial of vaginal birth in some of these situations, including after C-section , may be possible. Some C-sections are also performed upon request . The World Health Organization recommends that they should be done based on medical need and in many cases they are lifesaving for the mother and baby. A C-section typically takes 45 minutes to an hour. It may be done with a spinal block such that the woman is awake or under general anesthesia
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Terry Pratchett
SIR TERENCE DAVID JOHN PRATCHETT, OBE (28 April 1948 – 12 March 2015), better known as TERRY PRATCHETT, was an English author of fantasy novels , especially comical works . He is best known for his Discworld series of 41 novels. Pratchett's first novel , The Carpet People , was published in 1971. The first Discworld novel, The Colour of Magic , was published in 1983, after which he wrote two books a year on average. His 2011 Discworld novel Snuff was at the time of its release the third-fastest-selling hardback adult-readership novel since records began in the UK, selling 55,000 copies in the first three days. His final Discworld novel, The Shepherd\'s Crown , was published in August 2015, five months after his death. Pratchett, with more than 85 million books sold worldwide in 37 languages, was the UK's best-selling author of the 1990s
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Abandinus
ABANDINUS was a name used to refer to a Celtic god or male spirit worshipped in Godmanchester in Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
during the Romano-Celtic period. EPIGRAPHIC EVIDENCE Abandinus
Abandinus
is represented in Britain on a single altarstone. He is unknown throughout the rest of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and is therefore thought to have been a local god of the Roman fort at Godmanchester in Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
, possibly associated with either a natural spring or a stream in the neighbourhood The Roman fort at Godmanchester , a strategic site on Ermine Street at the crossing of the River Great Ouse
River Great Ouse
, is thought to have been called Durovigutum . The god is known only from an inscribed bronze feather, very likely some sort of votive object, dedicated to him
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Abellio
ABELLIO (also ABELIO and ABELIONNI) was a god worshipped in the Garonne
Garonne
Valley in Gallia Aquitania (now southwest France
France
), known primarily by a number of inscriptions which were discovered in Comminges . He may have been a god of apple trees . Some scholars have postulated that Abellio
Abellio
is the same name as Apollo , who in Crete
Crete
and elsewhere was called Abelios (Greek Αβέλιος), and by the Italians and some Dorians Apello, and that the deity is the same as the Gallic Apollo
Apollo
mentioned by Caesar , and also the same as the Belis or Belenus mentioned by Tertullian
Tertullian
and Herodian
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Ambisagrus
In Gallo-Roman religion , AMBISAGRUS was a Gaulish god worshipped at Aquileia in Cisalpine Gaul , where he was identified with Jupiter Optimus Maximus . The name may be composed of the Proto-Celtic prefix *ambi- ('around') and root *sagro-. John T. Koch has suggested that this Jovian epithet may originally have applied to Taranis , with allusion to the tendency of thunder near an observer to seem all-surrounding. NOTES * ^ L'Arbre Celtique entry for Ambisagrus. * ^ Proto-Celtic—English lexicon. University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies
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Ancamna
In Gallo-Roman religion , ANCAMNA was a goddess worshipped particularly in the valley of the Moselle River . She was commemorated at Trier and Ripsdorf as the consort of Lenus Mars , and at Möhn as the consort of Mars Smertulitanus . At Trier, altars were set up in honour of Lenus Mars, Ancamna and the genii of various pagi of the Treveri , giving the impression of Lenus Mars and Ancamna as tribal protectors honoured in an officially organized cult. Among the few statuettes left as votive offerings left at the sanctuary of Mars Smertulitanus and Ancamna at Möhn is one of a genius cucullatus like those offered to the Xulsigiae at the Lenus Mars temple complex in Trier. Inciona is also apparently invoked along with Lenus Mars Veraudunus on a bronze ex voto from Luxembourg; it is unclear what connection, if any, exists between Inciona and Ancamna
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Andarta
In Celtic polytheism , ANDARTA was a warrior goddess worshipped in southern Gaul . Inscriptions to her have been found in southern France and in Bern , Switzerland. She may be related to the goddess Andate, identified with Victory in Britain according to Roman historian Cassius Dio . Like the similar goddess Artio , she may have been associated with the bear
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Andraste
ANDRASTE, also known as ANDRASTA or ANDRED, was, according to the Roman historian Dio Cassius , an Icenic war goddess invoked by Boudica in her fight against the Roman occupation of Britain in AD 60. She may be the same as Andate, mentioned later by the same source, and described as "their name for Victory": i.e., the goddess Victoria . Thayer asserts that she may be related to Andarta also. The goddess Victoria is related to Nike , Bellona , Magna Mater (Great Mother), Cybele , and Vacuna
Vacuna
—goddesses who are often depicted on chariots . Many Neopagan sources describe the hare as sacred to Andraste. This seems to derive from a misreading of the passage in Dio Cassius in which Boudica
Boudica
releases a hare from her gown: "Let us, therefore, go against , trusting boldly to good fortune
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