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GeForce
GeForce
GeForce
is a brand of graphics processing units (GPUs) designed by Nvidia. As of the GeForce
GeForce
10 series, there have been fourteen iterations of the design. The first GeForce
GeForce
products were discrete GPUs designed for add-on graphics boards, intended for the high-margin PC gaming market, and later diversification of the product line covered all tiers of the PC graphics market, ranging from cost-sensitive[1] GPUs integrated on motherboards, to mainstream add-in retail boards. Most recently, GeForce
GeForce
technology has been introduced into Nvidia's line of embedded application processors, designed for electronic handhelds and mobile handsets. With respect to discrete GPUs, found in add-in graphics-boards, Nvidia's GeForce
GeForce
and AMD's Radeon
Radeon
GPUs are the only remaining competitors in the high-end market
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PlayStation 3
The PlayStation
PlayStation
3 (PS3) is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to PlayStation
PlayStation
2, and is part of the PlayStation
PlayStation
brand of consoles. It was first released on November 11, 2006, in Japan,[8] November 17, 2006, in North America, and March 23, 2007, in Europe
Europe
and Australia.[9][10][11] The PlayStation
PlayStation
3 mainly competed against consoles such as Microsoft's Xbox 360
Xbox 360
and Nintendo's Wii
Wii
as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles. The console was first officially announced at E3 2005, and was released at the end of 2006
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DDR SDRAM
DDR SDRAM
DDR SDRAM
is a double data rate synchronous dynamic random-access memory class of memory integrated circuits used in computers. DDR SDRAM, also called DDR1 SDRAM, has been superseded by DDR2 SDRAM, DDR3 SDRAM and DDR4 SDRAM. None of its successors are forward or backward compatible with DDR1 SDRAM, meaning DDR2, DDR3, and DDR4 memory modules will not work in DDR1-equipped motherboards, and vice versa. Compared to single data rate (SDR) SDRAM, the DDR SDRAM
DDR SDRAM
interface makes higher transfer rates possible by more strict control of the timing of the electrical data and clock signals. Implementations often have to use schemes such as phase-locked loops and self-calibration to reach the required timing accuracy.[1][2] The interface uses double pumping (transferring data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal) to double data bus bandwidth without a corresponding increase in clock frequency
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Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
(ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE. ORNL is the largest science and energy national laboratory in the Department of Energy system by surface[1] and by annual budget.[citation needed] ORNL is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near Knoxville
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Brand
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.[2][3] Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising. Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands. The practice of branding is thought to have begun with the ancient Egyptians who were known to have engaged in livestock branding as early as 2,700 BC.[4] Branding was used to differentiate one person’s cattle from another's by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. If a person would steal the animals, anyone could detect the symbol and deduce the actual owner
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Xbox (console)
The Xbox
Xbox
is a home video game console and the first installment in the Xbox
Xbox
series of consoles manufactured by Microsoft. It was released on November 15, 2001 in North America, followed by Australia, Europe
Europe
and Japan
Japan
in 2002.[2] It was Microsoft's first foray into the gaming console market. It is a sixth generation console, and competed with Sony's PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
and Nintendo's GameCube. It was also the first console produced by an American company since the Atari Jaguar
Atari Jaguar
ceased production in 1996. Announced in 2000, the Xbox, graphically powerful compared to its rivals, featured a standard PC's 733 MHz Intel Pentium III processor
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AMD
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets. While initially it manufactured its own processors, the company later outsourced its manufacturing, a practice known as fabless, after GlobalFoundries
GlobalFoundries
was spun off in 2009. AMD's main products include microprocessors, motherboard chipsets, embedded processors and graphics processors for servers, workstations and personal computers, and embedded systems applications. AMD
AMD
is the second-largest supplier and only significant rival to Intel in the market for x86-based microprocessors
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Radeon
Radeon
Radeon
(/ˈreɪdiɒn/) is a brand of computer products, including graphics processing units, random-access memory, RAM disk software, and solid-state drives, produced by Radeon
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Floating Point
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision. For this reason, floating-point computation is often found in systems which include very small and very large real numbers, which require fast processing times. A number is, in general, represented approximately to a fixed number of significant digits (the significand) and scaled using an exponent in some fixed base; the base for the scaling is normally two, ten, or sixteen. A number that can be represented exactly is of the following form: significand × base exponent , displaystyle text significand times text base ^ text exponent , where significand is an integer (i.e., in Z), base is an integer greater than or equal to two, and exponent is also an integer
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Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation (/ˈmaɪkrəˌsɒft/,[2][3] abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office
Microsoft Office
suite, and the Internet
Internet
Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox
Xbox
video game consoles and the Microsoft
Microsoft
Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers
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Supersampling
Supersampling
Supersampling
is a spatial anti-aliasing method, i.e. a method used to remove aliasing (jagged and pixelated edges, colloquially known as "jaggies") from images rendered in computer games or other computer programs that generate imagery. Aliasing
Aliasing
occurs because unlike real-world objects, which have continuous smooth curves and lines, a computer screen shows the viewer a large number of small squares. These pixels all have the same size, and each one has a single color. A line can only be shown as a collection of pixels, and therefore appears jagged unless it is perfectly horizontal or vertical. The aim of supersampling is to reduce this effect. Color samples are taken at several instances inside the pixel (not just at the center as normal), and an average color value is calculated
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High Dynamic Range Imaging
High-dynamic-range imaging
High-dynamic-range imaging
(HDRI) is a high dynamic range (HDR) technique used in imaging and photography to reproduce a greater dynamic range of luminosity than is possible with standard digital imaging or photographic techniques. The aim is to present a similar range of luminance to that experienced through the human visual system. The human eye, through adaptation of the iris and other methods, adjusts constantly to adapt to a broad range of luminance present in the environment. The brain continuously interprets this information so that a viewer can see in a wide range of light conditions. HDR images can represent a greater range of luminance levels than can be achieved using more 'traditional' methods, such as many real-world scenes containing very bright, direct sunlight to extreme shade, or very faint nebulae
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Rendering (computer Graphics)
Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model
3D model
(or models in what collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs. Also, the results of displaying such a model can be called a render. A scene file contains objects in a strictly defined language or data structure; it would contain geometry, viewpoint, texture, lighting, and shading information as a description of the virtual scene. The data contained in the scene file is then passed to a rendering program to be processed and output to a digital image or raster graphics image file
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SDRAM
Synchronous dynamic random-access memory
Synchronous dynamic random-access memory
(SDRAM) is any dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) where the operation of its external pin interface is coordinated by an externally supplied clock signal. DRAM integrated circuits (ICs) produced from the early 1970s to mid-1990s used an asynchronous interface, in which input control signals have a direct effect on internal functions only delayed by the trip across its semiconductor pathways. S DRAM
DRAM
has a synchronous interface, whereby changes on control inputs are recognised after a rising edge of its clock input. In S DRAM
DRAM
families standardized by JEDEC, the clock signal controls the stepping of an internal finite state machine that responds to incoming commands. These commands can be pipelined to improve performance, with previously started operations completing while new commands are received
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Vertex And Pixel Shaders
In computer graphics, a shader is a type of computer program that was originally used for shading (the production of appropriate levels of light, darkness, and color within an image) but which now performs a variety of specialized functions in various fields of computer graphics special effects or does video post-processing unrelated to shading, or even functions unrelated to graphics at all. Shaders calculate rendering effects on graphics hardware with a high degree of flexibility
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65 Nanometer
The 65-nanometer (65 nm) process is advanced lithographic node used in volume CMOS
CMOS
semiconductor fabrication. Printed linewidths (i.e., transistor gate lengths) can reach as low as 25 nm on a nominally 65 nm process, while the pitch between two lines may be greater than 130 nm.[1] For comparison, cellular ribosomes are about 20 nm end-to-end. A crystal of bulk silicon has a lattice constant of 0.543 nm, so such transistors are on the order of 100 atoms across. By September 2007, Intel, AMD, IBM, UMC, Chartered and TSMC
TSMC
were producing 65 nm chips. While feature sizes may be drawn as 65 nm or less, the wavelengths of light used for lithography are 193 nm and 248 nm. Fabrication of sub-wavelength features requires special imaging technologies, such as optical proximity correction and phase-shifting masks
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