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Geats
The Geats
Geats
(/ˈɡiːts/, /ˈɡeɪəts/ or /ˈjæts/)[1][2] (Old English: gēatas [ˈjæɑ̯tɑs]; Old Norse: gautar [ˈɡɑu̯tɑr]; Swedish: götar [ˈjøːtar]; and sometimes Goths[3]) were a North Germanic tribe who inhabited Götaland
Götaland
("land of the Geats") in modern southern Sweden. They are one of the progenitor groups of modern Swedes, along with Swedes
Swedes
and Gutes
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Finland
Finland
Finland
(/ˈfɪnlənd/ ( listen); Finnish: Suomi [suo̯mi] ( listen); Swedish: Finland
Finland
[ˈfɪnland]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Finland
Finland
(Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland)[7] is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. The country has land borders with Sweden
Sweden
to the northwest, Norway
Norway
to the north, and Russia
Russia
to the east. To the south is the Gulf of Finland
Finland
with Estonia
Estonia
on the opposite side
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Legend
Legend
Legend
is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history. Narratives in this genre may demonstrate human values, and which possesses certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude. Legend, for its active and passive participants, includes no happenings that are outside the realm of "possibility," but may include miracles. Legends may be transformed over time, in order to keep them fresh and vital, and realistic. Many legends operate within the realm of uncertainty, never being entirely believed by the participants, but also never being resolutely doubted.[1] The Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
defined legend as folktale historically grounded.[2] A modern folklorist's professional definition of legend was proposed by Timothy R
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Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. Proto-Germanic developed from pre-Proto-Germanic into three branches during the first half of the first millennium of the Common Era: West Germanic, East Germanic
East Germanic
and North Germanic, which however remained in contact over a considerable time, especially the Ingvaeonic languages (including English), which arose from West Germanic dialects and remained in continued contact with North Germanic. A defining feature of Proto-Germanic is the completion of Grimm's law, a set of sound changes that occurred between its status as a dialect of Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
and its gradual divergence into a separate language
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Indo-European Ablaut
In linguistics, the Indo-European ablaut (pronounced /ˈæblaʊt/) is a system of apophony (regular vowel variations) in the Proto-Indo-European language
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Heiti
A heiti ( Old Norse
Old Norse
heiti [hɛitɪ], Modern Icelandic [heiːtɪ], pl. heiti "name, appellation, designation, term"[1]) is a synonym used in Old Norse
Old Norse
poetry in place of the normal word for something. For instance, Old Norse
Old Norse
poets might use jór "steed" instead of the prosaic hestr "horse".Contents1 Kennings 2 Types 3 Parallels 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksKennings[edit] In the modern sense, heiti are distinguished from kennings in that a heiti is a simple word, whereas a kenning is a circumlocution in the form of a phrase or compound word; thus mækir is a heiti for "sword" (the usual word in prose is sverð), whereas grand hlífar "bane of shield" and ben-fúrr "wound-fire" are kennings for "sword". However, Snorri Sturluson, writing in the 13th century, understood heiti in a broader sense that could include kennings
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Trollhättan Falls
Trollhättan
Trollhättan
Falls is a waterfall in the Göta river (Göta älv) in Sweden. The falls starts at Malgö Bridge in central Trollhättan, and has a total height of 32 metres, making up a large part of the 44 metre total fall of the river from Vänern
Vänern
to Kattegat. Before the hydroelectric powerplants was built the discharge of the falls was 900 m³/s, and the falls stretched down to Olidehålan, where the lower part of the fall was called Helvetesfallet ("Hell Falls"). Today the river is allowed through its original course only at special occasions, to regulate the waterlevels of Vänern
Vänern
or as a tourist attraction, such as during the Fallens dagar ("Days of the Waterfalls"), arranged on the third Friday of July every year
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Norse Saga
Sagas are stories mostly about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, early Viking
Viking
voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, and migration to Iceland
Iceland
and of feuds between Icelandic families. They were written in the Old Norse
Old Norse
language, mainly in Iceland.[1] The texts are tales in prose which share some similarities with the epic, often with stanzas or whole poems in alliterative verse embedded in the text, of heroic deeds of days long gone, "tales of worthy men," who were often Vikings, sometimes pagan, sometimes Christian. The tales are usually realistic, except legendary sagas, sagas of saints, sagas of bishops and translated or recomposed romances
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Frisia
Coordinates: 53°15′00″N 7°00′00″E / 53.25000°N 7.00000°E / 53.25000; 7.00000Frisia Frisia
Frisia
in Northwestern EuropeStateless nation FrisiansIndependence None*Area 13,482.73 km2 (5,205.71 sq mi)Population 2,655,391Germany: 877,092 Netherlands: 1,778,299Density 197/km2 (510/sq mi)Languages West Frisian North Frisian East Frisian Low Saxon (Friso-Saxon) Dutch (West Frisian Dutch, Stadsfries) German DanishMain religion ProtestantTime zone  • Summer CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2)Internet TL
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Johannes Magnus
Johannes Magnus
Johannes Magnus
(a modified form of Ioannes Magnus, a Latin translation of his birth name Johan Månsson; 19 March 1488 – 22 March 1544) was the last functioning Catholic
Catholic
Archbishop
Archbishop
in Sweden, and also a theologian, genealogist, and historian.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 See also 4 Footnotes 5 SourcesLife[edit] Johannes Magnus
Johannes Magnus
was born in Linköping, son of the burgess Måns Pedersson and his wife Kristina Kruse. (His own later claims to be descended from a noble family named Store are unverified.)[1] Magnus was selected by Gustav I Vasa to become Archbishop, in 1523. As he was about to travel to Rome
Rome
to be ordained, a papal bull from Pope Clement VII was received, stating that the previous Archbishop
Archbishop
Gustav Trolle, who was at the time in exile abroad, should be reinstated
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Sagas
Sagas are stories mostly about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, early Viking
Viking
voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, and migration to Iceland
Iceland
and of feuds between Icelandic families. They were written in the Old Norse
Old Norse
language, mainly in Iceland.[1] The texts are tales in prose which share some similarities with the epic, often with stanzas or whole poems in alliterative verse embedded in the text, of heroic deeds of days long gone, "tales of worthy men," who were often Vikings, sometimes pagan, sometimes Christian. The tales are usually realistic, except legendary sagas, sagas of saints, sagas of bishops and translated or recomposed romances
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Nordisk Familjebok
Nordisk familjebok
Nordisk familjebok
(Swedish: [ˈnuːɖɪsk faˈmɪljəˈbuːk], Nordic Family Book) is a Swedish encyclopedia that was published in print form between 1876 and 1957, and that is now fully available in digital form via Project Runeberg at Linköping University.Contents1 History1.1 Print editions2 Further reading 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Print editions[edit] The first edition of Nordisk familjebok
Nordisk familjebok
was published in 20 volumes between 1876 and 1899, and is known as the " Idun
Idun
edition" because it bears a picture of Idun, the Norse mythologic goddess of spring and rejuvenation, on its cover.[1][2] This was published during almost a quarter of a century, and particularly the first ten volumes contain material which are not seen in later editions
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Hervarar Saga
Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks
Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks
(The Saga
Saga
of Hervör and Heidrek) is a legendary saga from the 13th century combining matter from several older sagas.[1] It is a valuable saga for several different reasons beside its literary qualities. It contains traditions of wars between Goths
Goths
and Huns, from the 4th century, and the last part is used as a source for Swedish medieval history. Moreover, it was an important source of inspiration for Tolkien when shaping his legends of Middle-earth
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Hunnish
The Huns
Huns
were a nomadic people who lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia
Central Asia
between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they w
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Orda (organization)
An orda (also orda, ordu, ordo, or ordon) or horde was a historical sociopolitical and military structure found on the Eurasian Steppe, usually associated with the Turkic people
Turkic people
and Mongols. This entity can be seen as the regional equivalent of a clan or a tribe. Some successful ordas gave rise to khanates. While the Slavic term ordo and the western term horde were in origin borrowings from the Turkic term ordo for "camp, headquarters", the original term did not carry the meaning of a large khanate such as the Golden Horde. These structures were contemporarily referred to as ulus ("nation" or "tribe")
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Angantyr
Angantyr
Angantyr
was the name of three male characters from the same line in Norse mythology, and who appear in Hervarar saga, Gesta Danorum, and Faroese ballads. The last generation named Angantyr
Angantyr
also appears to be mentioned as Incgentheow in Widsith, line 115, together with his father Heiðrekr (Heathoric), half-brother Hlöð (Hlith) and Hlöð's mother Sifka (Sifeca).Contents1 Angantyr
Angantyr
the Berserker 2 Angantyr
Angantyr
Höfundsson 3 Angantyr
Angantyr
Heidreksson 4 References 5 External links Angantyr
Angantyr
the Berserker[edit]Hjorvard and Hjalmar
Hjalmar
propose to IngeborgAngantyr's father Arngrim
Arngrim
had given him the magic sword Tyrfing, which cut through anything as if through cloth, and which killed a man every time it was unsheathed
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