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Gauri Ayyub
GAURI AYYUB (1931 – 1998) was a social worker, activist, writer and teacher based in Kolkata
Kolkata
(Calcutta) for most of her life. Married to the philosopher and literary critic, Abu Sayeed Ayyub (1906–1982), Gauri was a writer in her own right, and is known for her short stories, translations, and numerous articles on social issues. She is recognised for her role in the propagation of communal harmony in Bengal, active assistance to the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 and vocal opposition to the curbing of human rights during the declaration of emergency in India in 1974 . She assisted writer and social worker Maitreyi Devi in founding Khelaghar, initially as a shelter for Bangladeshi children orphaned during the war of 1971. After Maitreyi Devi died in 1990, Ayyub took charge of Khelaghar and it still runs as an orphanage that follows the educational principles of Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
, emphasising holistic development of children in a natural surrounding. Gauri Ayyub studied philosophy at Visva-Bharati University , Santiniketan and education at the University of Calcutta
University of Calcutta
. During 1963–91, she was a professor and later the head of the department of education at the Shri Shikshayatan College , an affiliated college of the University of Calcutta
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Kolkata
Nickname(s): City of Joy City of Palaces Cultural Capital of India Kolkata Show map of West Bengal Kolkata Show map of India Location of Kolkata in West Bengal Coordinates: 22°34′N 88°22′E / 22.567°N 88.367°E / 22.567; 88.367 Coordinates : 22°34′N 88°22′E / 22.567°N 88.367°E / 22.567; 88.367 COUNTRY India STATE West Bengal DI
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Bangladesh Liberation War
Bangladeshi and Indian victory * Collapse of the Pakistan Eastern Command * Establishment of the sovereignty of Bangladesh Territorial changes Independence of East Pakistan from Pakistan as Bangladesh BELLIGERENTS Bangladesh * Bangladesh Forces India (3-16 December 1971) * Indian Armed Forces
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The Emergency (India)
In India, "THE EMERGENCY" refers to a 21-month period from 1975 to 1977 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had a state of emergency declared across the country. Officially issued by President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed under Article 352(1) of the Constitution because of the prevailing "internal disturbance", the Emergency was in effect from 25 June 1975 until its withdrawal on 21 March 1977. The order bestowed upon the Prime Minister the authority to rule by decree , allowing elections to be suspended and civil liberties to be curbed. For much of the Emergency, most of Gandhi's political opponents were imprisoned and the press was censored. Several other human rights violations were reported from the time, including a forced mass-sterilisation campaign spearheaded by Sanjay Gandhi , the Prime Minister's son. The Emergency is one of the most controversial periods of independent India\'s history . Documents that have surfaced over the past few years indicate that Indira Gandhi had planned to impose the emergency only temporarily for some time till the violence that was erupting in the country had subsided
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Maitreyi Devi
MAITREYI DEVI (or MAITREYī DEVī) (September 1, 1914 – January 29, 1989) was a Bengali -born Indian poet and novelist. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Education * 3 Awards * 4 See also * 5 References LIFE _ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (April 2015)_Devi was born in 1914, she was the daughter of philosopher Surendranath Dasguptaand protegée of poet Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
. She was married to quinologist dr. M.M. Sen. She was the founder of the Council for the Promotion of Communal Harmony in 1964, and vice-president of the All- India
India
Women’s Coordinating Council. Her first book of verse appeared when she was sixteen, with a preface by Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
. She wrote _Rabindranath--the man behind his poetry_. She was the basis for the main character in Romanian writer Mircea Eliade
Mircea Eliade
's 1933 novel _ Bengal
Bengal
Nights _. In her _ Na Hanyate_ (English title, _It Does Not Die: A Romance_) novel, written as a response to _ Bengal
Bengal
Nights_, Maitreyi Devidescribes the romance and the cultural tensions resulted from it. Given the cultural constraints, she denies claims of a sexual affair between her and Eliade during the latter's sojourn in British India
India

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Rabindranath Tagore
RABINDRANATH TAGORE FRAS (/rəˈbɪndrənɑːt tæˈɡɔːr/ ( listen ); Bengali: ), also written RAVīNDRANāTHA THāKURA (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet GURUDEV, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music , as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism
Contextual Modernism
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Author of Gitanjali and its "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse", he became the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature in 1913. Sometimes referred to as "the Bard
Bard
of Bengal", Tagore's poetic songs were viewed as spiritual and mercurial; however, his "elegant prose and magical poetry" remain largely unknown outside Bengal. * Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
portal A Pirali Brahmin from Calcutta
Calcutta
with ancestral gentry roots in Jessore , Tagore wrote poetry as an eight-year-old. At the age of sixteen, he released his first substantial poems under the pseudonym Bhānusiṃha ("Sun Lion"), which were seized upon by literary authorities as long-lost classics. By 1877 he graduated to his first short stories and dramas, published under his real name. As a humanist, universalist internationalist, and ardent anti-nationalist, he denounced the British Raj and advocated independence from Britain
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Visva-Bharati University
VISVA-BHARATI UNIVERSITY is a public central government funded university located in Santiniketan , West Bengal . It was founded by Rabindranath Tagore who called it Visva Bharati, which means the communion of the world with India. In its initial years Tagore expressed his dissatisfaction with the word 'university', since university translates to Vishva-Vidyalaya, which is smaller in scope than Visva Bharati. Until independence it was a college. Soon after independence, in 1951, the institution was given the status of a university and was renamed Visva Bharati University. The English daily, The Nation , notes, "Using the money he received with his Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, the school was expanded and renamed Visva-Bharati University
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University Of Calcutta
The UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA (informally known as CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY or CU) is a public state university located in Kolkata
Kolkata
(formerly _Calcutta_), West Bengal
West Bengal
, India
India
established on 24 January 1857. It was the first institution in Asia to be established as a multidisciplinary and secular Western-style university. Within India it is recognized as a "Five-Star University" and a "Centre with Potential for Excellence" by the University Grants Commission and the National Assessment and Accreditation Council . There are seven Nobel laureates associated with this university including Ronald Ross , Rabindranath Tagore , C. V. Raman and Amartya Sen
Amartya Sen
. The university has the highest number of students who have cleared the doctoral entrance eligibility exam in Natural Science & Arts conducted by Government of India's National Eligibility Test to become eligible to pursue research with a full scholarship awarded by the Government of India
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Shri Shikshayatan College
SHRI SHIKSHAYATAN COLLEGE is an undergraduate women's liberal arts college in Kolkata , India and was founded on 8 July 1955. It is affiliated with the University of Calcutta . It also offers a master's degree in English and Commerce. NOTABLE ALUMNAE * Mamata Banerjee , Chief Minister of West Bengal * Usha Ganguly , theatre director REFERENCES * ^ "Shri Shikshayatan College Best Commerce Colleges 2014 India Today Survey". indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved 2016-01-16. * ^ "Affiliated College of University of Calcutta". Archived from the original on February 18, 2012. * ^ "Change-makers to beat bias". The Telegraph (Kolkata)
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Rheumatoid Arthritis
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints . It typically results in warm, swollen, and painful joints. Pain and stiffness often worsen following rest. Most commonly, the wrist and hands are involved, with the same joints typically involved on both sides of the body. The disease may also affect other parts of the body. This may result in a low red blood cell count , inflammation around the lungs , and inflammation around the heart . Fever and low energy may also be present. Often, symptoms come on gradually over weeks to months. While the cause of rheumatoid arthritis is not clear, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The underlying mechanism involves the body's immune system attacking the joints. This results in inflammation and thickening of the joint capsule . It also affects the underlying bone and cartilage . The diagnosis is made mostly on the basis of a person's signs and symptoms. X-rays and laboratory testing may support a diagnosis or exclude other diseases with similar symptoms. Other diseases that may present similarly include systemic lupus erythematosus , psoriatic arthritis , and fibromyalgia among others. The goals of treatment are to reduce pain, decrease inflammation, and improve a person's overall functioning. This may be helped by balancing rest and exercise, the use of splints and braces , or the use of assistive devices
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East Pakistan
EAST PAKISTAN was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan
Pakistan
between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. Its land borders were with India
India
and Burma
Burma
, with a coastline on the Bay of Bengal . East Pakistan
Pakistan
was located near, without a border, to the Kingdom of Nepal , the People\'s Republic of China , the Kingdom of Sikkim and the Kingdom of Bhutan . East Pakistan
Pakistan
was renamed from East Bengal by the One Unit scheme of Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra . The Constitution of Pakistan
Pakistan
of 1956 replaced the British monarchy with an Islamic republic
Islamic republic
. Bengali politician H. S. Suhrawardy served as the Prime Minister of Pakistan between 1956 and 1957. A Bengali bureaucrat Iskandar Mirza became the first President of Pakistan
Pakistan
. The 1958 Pakistani coup d\'état brought general Ayub Khan to power. Khan replaced Mirza as president and launched a crackdown against pro-democracy leaders. Khan enacted the Constitution of Pakistan
Pakistan
of 1962 which ended universal suffrage
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Mymensingh
MYMENSINGH (pronounced moy-mon-shin-haw), officially CITY OF MYMENSINGH is the capital of Mymensingh Division of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. Mymensingh
Mymensingh
city is located about 120 km (75 mi) north of Dhaka
Dhaka
which is the capital of the country. Border area cover Himalayan state of India, Gazipur, Tangail, Jamalpur, Netrokona, Kishorganj. Since 2015 Mymensingh
Mymensingh
became the 8th administrative divisional headquarters of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. According to Ministry of Public Administration, Mymensingh
Mymensingh
is ranked 4 out of 64 districts. It is a major financial center of North Central Bangladesh. it is the third largest city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in Bangladesh.Density of Mymensingh
Mymensingh
City is 44,458/sq km which is second density populated city in Bangladesh. Mymensingh
Mymensingh
attracts 25 percent of health tourists visiting Bangladesh. Mymensingh
Mymensingh
is the anglicised pronunciation of the original name _Momenshahi_, referring to a ruler called Momen Shah. The cadet college established in Tangail
Tangail
in 1963 was called Momenshahi Cadet College
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Bangladesh
Coordinates : 23°48′N 90°18′E / 23.8°N 90.3°E / 23.8; 90.3 People's Republic of Bangladesh * গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ (Bengali ) * _Gaṇaprajātantrī Bāṃlādēśa_ Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Amar Sonar Bangla " (Bengali ) "My Golden Bengal"------------------------- MARCH: " Notuner Gaan " "The Song of Youth" * GOVERNMENT SEAL OF BANGLADESH * Capital and largest city Dhaka 23°42′N 90°21′E / 23.700°N 90.350°E / 23.700; 90.350 Official language and national language Bengali ETHNIC GROUPS * 98% Bengalis * 2% Minorities * Chakmas * Biharis * Marmas * Santhals * Mros * Tanchangyas * Bawms * Tripur
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Gandhian
GANDHISM is a body of ideas that describes the inspiration, vision and the life work of Mohandas Gandhi . It is particularly associated with his contributions to the idea of nonviolent resistance , sometimes also called civil resistance . The two pillars of Gandhism are truth and non-violence. The term "Gandhism" also encompasses what Gandhi's ideas, words and actions mean to people around the world, and how they used them for guidance in building their own future. Gandhism also permeates into the realm of the individual human being, non-political and non-social. A Gandhian can mean either an individual who follows, or a specific philosophy which is attributed to, Gandhism. Professor Ramjee Singh has called Gandhi a bodhisattva (bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who, motivated by great compassion, has generated _bodhicitta_, which is a spontaneous wish to attain buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art of the twentieth century). However, Gandhi did not approve of 'Gandhism', as he explained: "There is no such thing as "Gandhism" and I do not want to leave any sect after me. I do not claim to have originated any new principle or doctrine. I have simply tried in my own way to apply the eternal truths to our daily life and problems...The opinions I have formed and the conclusions I have arrived at are not final. I may change them tomorrow
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Patna University
PATNA UNIVERSITY, the first university in Bihar , was established in 1917 during the British Raj , and is the seventh oldest university of the Indian subcontinent . At that time, the jurisdiction of the university extended to Bihar, Odisha , and the Kingdom of Nepal . The university oversaw examinations for educational institutions ranging from school finals to the postgraduate levels . This continued almost for four decades, until the establishment of the Tribhuvan University , Kathmandu , and the Utkal University , Bhubaneshwar . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Organisation * 3 Faculties and departments * 3.1 Faculty of Science * 3.2 Faculty of Humanities * 3.3 Faculty of Social Sciences * 3.4 Faculties of Law, Education, Commerce, Fine Arts and Medicine * 4 Traditional and distance education * 5 Library and computer center * 6 Notable faculty * 7 Notable alumni * 8 Patna University Students Union * 8.1 Elected Office Bearer * 8.2 Executive committee members and College Counsellor * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links HISTORY Patna University was established in the year 1917 as an affiliating and examining body. On January 2, 1952 it was converted into a purely teaching -cum-residential University with the territorial jurisdiction over Metropolitan Patna
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Visva Bharati University
VISVA-BHARATI UNIVERSITY is a public central government funded university located in Santiniketan , West Bengal
West Bengal
. It was founded by Rabindranath Tagore who called it _Visva Bharati_, which means the communion of the world with India. In its initial years Tagore expressed his dissatisfaction with the word 'university', since university translates to _Vishva-Vidyalaya_, which is smaller in scope than _Visva Bharati_. Until independence it was a college. Soon after independence, in 1951, the institution was given the status of a university and was renamed Visva Bharati University. The English daily, _The Nation _, notes, "Using the money he received with his Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Literature in 1913, the school was expanded and renamed Visva-Bharati University
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