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Garden Design
GARDEN DESIGN is the art and process of designing and creating plans for layout and planting of gardens and landscapes . Garden design may be done by the garden owner themselves, or by professionals of varying levels of experience and expertise. Most professional garden designers have some training in horticulture and the principles of design, and some are also landscape architects , a more formal level of training that usually requires an advanced degree and often a state license. Amateur gardeners may also attain a high level of experience from extensive hours working in their own gardens, through casual study, serious study in Master Gardener Programs , or by joining gardening clubs
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Rock (geology)
ROCK or STONE is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids . For example, granite , a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz , feldspar and biotite . The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere , is made of rock. Rock has been used by mankind throughout history. The minerals and metals found in rocks have been essential to human civilization. Three major groups of rocks are defined: igneous , sedimentary , and metamorphic . The scientific study of rocks is called petrology , which is an essential component of geology
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Picnic Table
A PICNIC TABLE (or PICNIC BENCH) is a modified table with attached benches, designed for eating a meal outdoors (picnicking ). CONTENTS * 1 Uses * 2 Varieties * 2.1 Wooden tables * 2.2 Plastic
Plastic
tables * 2.3 Metal tables * 2.4 Stone or concrete tables * 2.5 Children\'s picnic table * 3 References USES Picnic
Picnic
tables are used for dining, resting, doing crafts , and other activities. Picnic
Picnic
tables can be found outdoors in many public parks , residential back yards , rest areas , campgrounds, amusement parks , and many other places. Picnic
Picnic
tables are also used indoors when it is desired to have attached seating to tables. This is most common in school cafeterias , community centers , and employee break rooms . Each table usually seats from six to eight people, though smaller and larger capacity tables are available
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Peat
PEAT (/piːt/ ), also called TURF (/tɜːrf/ ), is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands , bogs , mires , moors, or muskegs . The peatland ecosystem is the most efficient carbon sink on the planet because peatland plants capture the CO2 which is naturally released from the peat; this maintains an equilibrium. In natural peatlands, the "annual rate of biomass production is greater than the rate of decomposition", but it takes "thousands of years for peatlands to develop the deposits of 1.5 to 2.3 m , which is the average depth of the boreal peatlands". Sphagnum moss (peat moss) is one of the most common components in peat, although many other plants can contribute. Soils that contain mostly peat are known as histosols . Peat
Peat
forms in wetland conditions, where flooding obstructs flows of oxygen from the atmosphere. This slows rates of decomposition
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Topsoil
TOPSOIL is the upper, outermost layer of soil , usually the top 2 inches (5.1 cm) to 8 inches (20 cm). It has the highest concentration of organic matter and microorganisms and is where most of the Earth
Earth
's biological soil activity occurs. Four elements constitute the composition of soil. Those elements are mineral particles, organic matter, water, and air. The volume of top soil consists of 50 to 80 percent of these particles which form the skeletal structure of most soils. This composition allows the soil to sustain its own weight, and other internal matter such as water and overlying landscape. Organic matter, another important element, varies on quantity on different soils. This provokes positive and negative effects or reactions on the soil. The strength of soil structure decreases with the presence of organic matter, creating weak bearing capacities
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Microclimate
A MICROCLIMATE is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one. The term may refer to areas as small as a few square meters or square feet (for example a garden bed or a cave) or as large as many square kilometers or square miles. Because climate is statistical , which implies spatial and temporal variation of the mean values of the describing parameters , within a region there can occur and persist over time sets of statistically distinct conditions, that is, microclimates. Microclimates can be found in most places. Microclimates exist, for example, near bodies of water which may cool the local atmosphere, or in heavy urban areas where brick , concrete , and asphalt absorb the sun's energy, heat up, and re-radiate that heat to the ambient air: the resulting urban heat island is a kind of microclimate
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Soil
SOIL is a mixture of organic matter , minerals , gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. The Earth's body of soil is the pedosphere , which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage , supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth\'s atmosphere ; it is a habitat for organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the soil. Soil
Soil
interfaces with the lithosphere , the hydrosphere , the atmosphere , and the biosphere . The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, literally translates ground stone. Soil
Soil
consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter (the soil matrix), as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution). Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three-state system of solids, liquids, and gases
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Propane
mg L−1 (at 0 °C) log P 2.236 Vapor pressure
Vapor pressure
853.16 kPa (at 21.1 °C (70.0 °F)) Henry's law constant (kH) 15 nmol Pa−1 kg−1 Magnetic susceptibility (χ) -40.5·10−6 cm3/mol THERMOCHEMISTRY Specific heat capacity (C) 73.60 J K−1 mol−1 Std enthalpy of formation (ΔfHo298) −105.2–−104.2 kJ mol−1 Std enthalpy of combustion (ΔcHo298) −2.2197–−2.2187 MJ mol−1


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Butane
BUTANE (/ˈbjuːteɪn/ ) is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms . Butane
Butane
is a gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The term may refer to either of two structural isomers , N-BUTANE or ISOBUTANE (also called "methylpropane"), or to a mixture of these isomers . In the IUPAC nomenclature, however, "butane" refers only to the n-butane isomer (which is the isomer with the unbranched structure). Butanes are highly flammable, colorless, easily liquefied gases . The name butane comes from the roots but- (from butyric acid , named after the Greek word for butter) and -ane . It was discovered by the chemist Edward Frankland in 1849
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Chair
A CHAIR is a piece of furniture with a raised surface supported by legs, commonly used to seat a single person. Chairs are supported most often by four legs and have a back; however, a chair can have three legs or can have a different shape. Chairs are made of a wide variety of materials, ranging from wood to metal to synthetic material (e.g. plastic), and they may be padded or upholstered in various colors and fabrics, either just on the seat (as with some dining room chairs) or on the entire chair. Chairs are used in a number of rooms in homes (e.g. in living rooms , dining rooms , and dens ), in schools and offices (with desks ), and in various other workplaces. A chair without a back or arm rests is a STOOL , or when raised up, a bar stool . A chair with arms is an ARMCHAIR; one with upholstery, reclining action, and a fold-out footrest is a RECLINER
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Table (furniture)
A TABLE is an item of furniture with a flat top and one or more legs, used as a surface for working at, eating from or on which to place things. Some common types of table are the dining room table, which is used for seated persons to eat meals; the coffee table, which is a low table used in living rooms to display items or serve refreshments; and the bedside table, which is used to place an alarm clock and a lamp. There are also a range of specialized types of tables, such as drafting tables, used for doing architectural drawings, and sewing tables. Common design elements include: * top surfaces of various shapes, including rectangular, square, rounded, semi-circular or oval * legs arranged in two or more similar pairs. It usually has four legs
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Jin Dynasty (265–420)
The JIN DYNASTY, distinguished as the SIMA JIN and LIANG JIN, was a Chinese dynasty , empire , and era traditionally dated from AD 265 to 420. It was founded by Sima Yan , son of Sima Zhao who was made Prince of Jin and posthumously declared the founder of the dynasty. It followed the Three Kingdoms period (220-280 AD), which ended with the conquest of Eastern Wu by the Jin. There are two main divisions in the history of the dynasty
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Umbrella
An UMBRELLA or PARASOL is a folding canopy supported by wooden or metal ribs, which is usually mounted on a wooden, metal, or plastic pole. It is designed to protect a person against rain or sunlight . The word "umbrella" typically refers to a device used for protection from rain. The word parasol usually refers to an item designed to protect from the sun. Often the difference is the material used for the canopy; some parasols are not waterproof. Umbrella
Umbrella
canopies may be made of fabric or flexible plastic. Umbrellas and parasols are primarily hand-held portable devices sized for personal use. The largest hand-portable umbrellas are golf umbrellas. Umbrellas can be divided into two categories: fully collapsible umbrellas, in which the metal pole supporting the canopy retracts, making the umbrella small enough to fit in a handbag; and non-collapsible umbrellas, in which the support pole cannot retract and only the canopy can be collapsed
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Sissinghurst Castle Garden
The GARDEN at SISSINGHURST CASTLE in the Weald
Weald
of Kent
Kent
, in England at Sissinghurst village, is owned and maintained by the National Trust . It is among the most famous gardens in England
England
and is grade I listed. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 The National Trust * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Literature * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORYSissinghurst's garden was created in the 1930s by Vita Sackville-West , poet and gardening writer, and her husband Harold Nicolson , author and diplomat. Sackville-West was a writer on the fringes of the Bloomsbury Group
Bloomsbury Group
who found her greatest popularity in the weekly columns she contributed as gardening correspondent of The Observer , which incidentally—for she never touted it—made her own garden famous
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Patio Heater
A PATIO HEATER (also called a mushroom or umbrella heater) is a radiant heating appliance for generating thermal radiation for outdoor use. A burner on top of a post, burns liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), propane or butane , and directs the flames against a perforated metal screen. Heat is radiated from the surface of the screen in a circular pattern around the appliance. A reflector atop the burner reflects heat that would be otherwise lost upwards. This is because the reflecting hood is usually silvered which makes it a poor absorber/emitter of heat but excellent at reflecting infra-red radiation back. This reduces the amount of heat lost by conduction as silvered surfaces will not absorb infra-red light. The chimenea is an alternative to the patio heater for home use, which burns wood instead of gas. Some newer types of patio heaters are electrically powered radiative heaters that emit infrared energy onto nearby surfaces, which in turn heat up the surrounding air
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Climate Zone
KöPPEN CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1954, 1961) collaborated with Köppen on changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the KöPPEN–GEIGER CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM. The Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980). The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, which was one of the criticisms of the Köppen system (the C climate group was too broad)
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