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Gallo-Roman
The term GALLO-ROMAN describes the Romanized culture of Gaul
Gaul
under the rule of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. This was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman morals and way of life in a uniquely Gaulish context. The well-studied meld of cultures in Gaul
Gaul
gives historians a model against which to compare and contrast parallel developments of Romanization in other, less-studied Roman provinces. Interpretatio romana offered Roman names for Gaulish deities such as the smith-god Gobannus , but of Celtic deities only the horse-patroness Epona penetrated Romanized cultures beyond the confines of Gaul. The barbarian invasions beginning in the early fifth century forced upon Gallo-Roman
Gallo-Roman
culture fundamental changes in politics, in the economic underpinning, in military organization
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Loire
The LOIRE (French pronunciation: ​ ; Occitan : Léger; Breton : Liger) is the longest river in France
France
and the 171st longest in the world. With a length of 1,012 kilometres (629 mi), it drains an area of 117,054 km2 (45,195 sq mi), or more than a fifth of France's land area, while its average discharge is only half that of the Rhône
Rhône
. It rises in the highlands of the southeastern quarter of the Massif Central in the Cévennes
Cévennes
range (in the department of Ardèche
Ardèche
) at 1,350 m (4,430 ft) near Mont Gerbier de Jonc ; it flows north through Nevers to Orléans , then west through Tours
Tours
and Nantes
Nantes
until it reaches the Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
( Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
) at Saint-Nazaire
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Tours
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. TOURS (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a city located in the centre-west of France
France
. It is the administrative centre of the Indre-et-Loire department and the largest city in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France
France
(although it is not the capital, which is the region's second-largest city, Orléans ). In 2012, the city of Tours had 134,978 inhabitants, while the population of the whole metropolitan area was 483,744. Tours
Tours
stands on the lower reaches of the Loire river, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast
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Silva Carbonaria
SILVA CARBONARIA, the "charcoal forest", was the dense old-growth forest of beech and oak that formed a natural boundary during the Late Iron Age through Roman times into the Early Middle Ages across what is now Belgium . The forest naturally thinned out in the open sandy stretches to the north and formed a barrier—trackless to the outsider—on the heavier soils to the south. Yet further to the south, the higher elevation and deep river valleys were covered by the even less penetrable ancient Arduenna Silva, the deeply folded Ardennes , which are still forested to this day. The Silva Carbonaria was a vast forest that stretched from the rivers Senne and the Dijle in the north to the Sambre in the south. To the east Silva Carbonaria extended to the Rhine , where near Cologne in 388 CE the magistri militum praesentalis Nannienus and Quintinus counter-attacked a Frankish incursion across the Rhine in the Silva Carbonaria
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Visigoths
The VISIGOTHS (UK : /ˈvɪzɪˌɡɒθs/ ; US : /ˈvɪzɪˌɡɑːθs/ ; Latin : Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi; Italian : Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths
Goths
. These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in Late Antiquity , or what is known as the Migration Period
Migration Period
. The Visigoths emerged from earlier Gothic groups (possibly the Thervingi ) who had invaded the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
beginning in 376 and had defeated the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. Relations between the Romans and the Visigoths
Visigoths
were variable, alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient
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Solidus (coin)
The SOLIDUS ( Latin
Latin
for "solid"; pl. SOLIDI), NOMISMA (Greek : νόμισμα, nómisma, lit. "coin"), or BEZANT was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire . Under Constantine , who introduced it on a wide scale, it had a weight of about 4.5 grams. It was largely replaced in Western Europe by Pepin the Short 's currency reform , which introduced the silver -based pound /shilling /penny system, under which the shilling ( Latin
Latin
: solidus) functioned as a unit of account equivalent to 12 pence , eventually developing into the French sou. In Eastern Europe, the nomisma was gradually debased by the Byzantine emperors until it was abolished by Alexius I
Alexius I
in 1092, who replaced it with the hyperpyron , which also came to be known as a "bezant". The Byzantine solidus also inspired the originally slightly less pure Arabian dinar
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Res Publica
RES PUBLICA is a Latin
Latin
phrase, loosely meaning 'public affair'. It is the root of the word 'republic ', and the word 'commonwealth ' has traditionally been used as a synonym for it; however translations vary widely according to the context. 'Res' is a nominative singular Latin noun for a substantive or concrete thing – as opposed to 'spes', which means something unreal or ethereal – and 'publica' is an attributive adjective meaning 'of and/or pertaining to the state or the public'. Hence a literal translation is, 'the public thing/affair'
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Postumus
YEAR OF THE SIX EMPERORS (238) * Gordian Revolt (238) * Aquileia (238) * Reign of Pupienus and Balbinus (238) * Invasion of the Carpi (238–239)REIGN OF GORDIAN III (238-244) * Sabinianus Revolt (240) * Resaena (243) * Misiche (244)REIGN OF PHILIP THE ARAB (244-249) * Invasion of the Carpi (245–247) * Secular Games of 248 (248) * Usurpation of Sponsianus (240s) * Usurpation of
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Linguasphere Observatory
The LINGUASPHERE OBSERVATORY (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network. It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor , a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
Senegal
. Its founding director is David Dalby, former director of the International African Institute and emeritus reader in the University of London, and its first research secretary was Philippe Blanchet, a Provençal-language poet currently serving as Professor of Sociolinguistics at the University of Rennes
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Diocletian
DIOCLETIAN (/ˌdaɪ.əˈkliːʃən/ ; Latin : Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born DIOCLES (244–312), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in the Roman province of Dalmatia , Diocletian
Diocletian
rose through the ranks of the military to become cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus
Carus
. After the deaths of Carus
Carus
and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor. The title was also claimed by Carus' other surviving son, Carinus , but Diocletian
Diocletian
defeated him in the Battle of the Margus . Diocletian's reign stabilized the empire and marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century . He appointed fellow officer Maximian as Augustus
Augustus
, co-emperor, in 286
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Hotel De La Monnaie
The Royal Mint TYPE Government-owned company INDUSTRY Coin
Coin
and medal production FOUNDED 864 AD HEADQUARTERS Paris
Paris
LINE-HEIGHT:1.2EM;">AREA SERVED European Union
European Union
KEY PEOPLE Aurélien Rousseau (Chief Executive ) PRODUCTS Coins Medals OWNER Agence des participations de l\'État NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 500 WEBSITE www.monnaiedeparis.fr The full façade of the Monnaie de Paris, seen from Île de la Cité . The dome on the right is that of the Institut de France
France
. The MONNAIE DE PARIS ( Paris
Paris
Mint ) is a government owned institution responsible for producing France's Euro coins
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Roman Citizenship
CITIZENSHIP in ancient Rome
Rome
( Latin
Latin
: civitas) was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance. * A male ROMAN CITIZEN enjoyed a wide range of privileges and protections defined in detail by the Roman state. A citizen could, under certain exceptional circumstances, be deprived of his citizenship. * ROMAN WOMEN had a limited form of citizenship. Though held in high regard they were not allowed to vote or stand for civil or public office. The rich might participate in public life by funding building projects or sponsoring religious ceremonies and other events. Women had the right to own property, to engage in business, and to obtain a divorce, but their legal rights varied over time
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Constitutio Antoniniana
The CONSTITUTIO ANTONINIANA ( Latin
Latin
for: "Constitution of Antoninus") (also called the EDICT OF CARACALLA or the ANTONINE CONSTITUTION) was an edict issued in 212, by the Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Caracalla
Caracalla
declaring that all free men in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
were to be given theoretical Roman citizenship and that all free women in the Empire were to be given the same rights as Roman women. Before 212, for the most part only inhabitants of Italy held full Roman citizenship. Colonies of Romans established in other provinces, Romans (or their descendants) living in provinces, the inhabitants of various cities throughout the Empire, and small numbers of local nobles (such as kings of client countries) held full citizenship also. Provincials, on the other hand, were usually non-citizens, although some held the Latin
Latin
Right
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Crisis Of The Third Century
The CRISIS OF THE THIRD CENTURY, also known as MILITARY ANARCHY or the IMPERIAL CRISIS (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion , civil war , plague , and economic depression . The crisis began with the assassination of Emperor Severus Alexander by his own troops in 235, initiating a 50-year period in which there were at least 26 claimants to the title of Emperor, mostly prominent Roman army generals , who assumed imperial power over all or part of the Empire. The same number of men became accepted by the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
as emperor during this period and so became legitimate emperors
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Hispania
HISPANIA (/hɪˈspænjə, -eɪniə/ ; Latin: ) was the Roman and Greek name for the Iberian Peninsula . Under the Republic , Hispania was divided into two provinces : Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior . During the Principate , Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Baetica and Lusitania
Lusitania
, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis . Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania
Hispania
Nova, later renamed Callaecia (or Gallaecia
Gallaecia
, whence modern Galicia )
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Roman Britain
ROMAN BRITAIN (Latin : Britannia
Britannia
or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
that was governed by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, from 43 to 410 AD. :129–131 Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
invaded Britain in 55 and 54 BC as part of his Gallic Wars . The Britons had been overrun or culturally assimilated by other Celtic tribes during the British Iron Age
British Iron Age
and had been aiding Caesar's enemies. He received tribute, installed a friendly king over the Trinovantes , and returned to Gaul
Gaul
. Planned invasions under Augustus
Augustus
were called off in 34, 27, and 25 BC. In 40 AD, Caligula assembled 200,000 men at the Channel , only to have them gather seashells
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