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Galactic Plane
The galactic plane is the plane on which the majority of a disk-shaped galaxy's mass lies. The directions perpendicular to the galactic plane point to the galactic poles. In actual usage, the terms galactic plane and galactic poles usually refer specifically to the plane and poles of the Milky Way, in which Planet Earth
Earth
is located. Some galaxies are irregular and do not have any well-defined disk. Even in the case of a barred spiral galaxy like the Milky Way, defining the galactic plane is slightly imprecise and arbitrary since the stars are not perfectly coplanar. In 1959, the IAU defined the position of the Milky Way's north galactic pole as exactly RA = 12h 49m, Dec = 27° 24′ in the then-used B1950 epoch; in the currently-used J2000 epoch, after precession is taken into account, its position is RA 12h 51m 26.282s, Dec 27° 07′ 42.01″
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NGC 4452
NGC 4452
NGC 4452
is a galaxy that is part of the Virgo Cluster. NGC 4452
NGC 4452
is located approximately 60 million light-years distant and is 35,000 light-years in width.[3] This galaxy was first seen by William Herschel
William Herschel
in 1784 with his 47 cm telescope. External links[edit]An Extraordinarily Slender Galaxy
Galaxy
– ESA/Hubble Picture of the weekReferences[edit]^ "The Interactive NGC Catalog Online". Results for NGC 4452. Retrieved 2010-11-08.  ^ "SIMBAD Astronomical Database". Results for NGC 4452
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B1950
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.[1] These time-varying astronomical quantities might include, for example, the mean longitude or mean anomaly of a body, the node of its orbit relative to a reference plane, the direction of the apogee or aphelion of its orbit, or the size of the major axis of its orbit. The main use of astronomical quantities specified in this way is to calculate other relevant parameters of motion, in order to predict future positions and velocities
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Bibcode
The bibcode (also known as the refcode) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references.Contents1 Adoption 2 Format 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesAdoption[edit] The Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD
SIMBAD
and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
(NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System
Astrophysics Data System
who coined and prefer the term "bibcode".[1][2] Format[edit] The code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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ArXiv
arXiv (pronounced "archive")[2] is a repository of electronic preprints (known as e-prints) approved for publication after moderation, that consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, and quantitative finance, which can be accessed online. In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14, 1991, arXiv.org passed the half-million article milestone on October 3, 2008,[3][4] and hit a million by the end of 2014.[5][6] By October 2016 the submission rate had grown to more than 10,000 per month.[6][7]Contents1 History 2 Peer review 3 Submission formats 4 Access 5 Copyright status of files 6 Controversy 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit]A screenshot of the arXiv taken in 1994,[8] using the browser NCSA Mosaic
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Sculptor (constellation)
Sculptor
Sculptor
is a small and faint constellation in the southern sky. It represents a sculptor. It was introduced by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in the 18th century. He originally named it Apparatus Sculptoris (the sculptor's studio), but the name was later shortened.Contents1 History 2 Characteristics 3 Notable features 4 Namesakes 5 ReferencesHistory[edit]Artistic rendition of the sculptor's studio, along with parts of the neighbouring constellations of Cetus
Cetus
and Machina Electrica, in Urania's Mirror (1825)The region to the south of Cetus
Cetus
and Aquarius had been named by Aratus in 270 BC as The Waters – an area of scattered faint stars with two brighter stars standing out
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Constellation
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.[1] The 88 modern constellations are defined regions of the sky together covering the entire celestial sphere.[2] Origins for the earliest constellations likely goes back to prehistory, whose now unknown creators collectively used them to related important stories of either their beliefs, experiences, creation or mythology. As such, different cultures and countries often adopted their own set of constellations outlines, some that persisted into the early 20th Century. Adoption of numerous constellations have significantly changed throughout the centuries
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Arcturus
Arcturus
Arcturus
(/ɑːrkˈtjʊərəs/), also designated Alpha Boötis (α Boötis, abbreviated Alpha Boo, α Boo), is the brightest star in the constellation of Boötes, the fourth-brightest in the night sky, and the brightest in the northern celestial hemisphere. Together with Spica
Spica
and Denebola
Denebola
(or Regulus, depending on the source), Arcturus
Arcturus
is part of the Spring Triangle
Spring Triangle
asterism and, by extension, also of the Great Diamond
Great Diamond
along with the star Cor Caroli. Relatively close at 36.7 light-years from the Sun, Arcturus
Arcturus
is a red giant of spectral type K0III—an ageing star around 7.1 billion years old that has used up its core hydrogen and moved off the main sequence
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Star
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth
Earth
is the Sun. Many other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth
Earth
during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points in the sky due to their immense distance from Earth. Historically, the most prominent stars were grouped into constellations and asterisms, the brightest of which gained proper names. Astronomers have assembled star catalogues that identify the known stars and provide standardized stellar designations
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Coma Berenices
Coma
Coma
is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awakened; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.[1] A person in a state of coma is described as being comatose. A distinction is made in the medical community between a real coma and a medically induced coma, the former is a result of circumstances beyond the control of the medical community, while the latter is a means by which medical professionals may allow a patient's injuries to heal in a controlled environment. A comatose person exhibits a complete absence of wakefulness and is unable to consciously feel, speak, hear, or move.[2] For a patient to maintain consciousness, two important neurological components must function. The first is the cerebral cortex—the gray matter that forms the outer layer of the brain
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Precession
Precession
Precession
is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. In an appropriate reference frame it can be defined as a change in the first Euler angle, whereas the third Euler angle defines the rotation itself. In other words, if the axis of rotation of a body is itself rotating about a second axis, that body is said to be precessing about the second axis. A motion in which the second Euler angle changes is called nutation. In physics, there are two types of precession: torque-free and torque-induced. In astronomy, precession refers to any of several slow changes in an astronomical body's rotational or orbital parameters
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J2000
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.[1] These time-varying astronomical quantities might include, for example, the mean longitude or mean anomaly of a body, the node of its orbit relative to a reference plane, the direction of the apogee or aphelion of its orbit, or the size of the major axis of its orbit. The main use of astronomical quantities specified in this way is to calculate other relevant parameters of motion, in order to predict future positions and velocities
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Epoch (astronomy)
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.[1] These time-varying astronomical quantities might include, for example, the mean longitude or mean anomaly of a body, the node of its orbit relative to a reference plane, the direction of the apogee or aphelion of its orbit, or the size of the major axis of its orbit. The main use of astronomical quantities specified in this way is to calculate other relevant parameters of motion, in order to predict future positions and velocities
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Celestial Pole
The north and south celestial poles are the two imaginary points in the sky where the Earth's axis of rotation, indefinitely extended, intersects the celestial sphere. The north and south celestial poles appear permanently directly overhead to an observer at the Earth's North Pole
North Pole
and South Pole, respectively. As the Earth
Earth
spins on its axis, the two celestial poles remain fixed in the sky, and all other points appear to rotate around them, completing one circuit per day (strictly, per sidereal day). The celestial poles are also the poles of the celestial equatorial coordinate system, meaning they have declinations of +90 degrees and −90 degrees (for the north and south celestial poles, respectively). The celestial poles do not remain permanently fixed against the background of the stars
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Declination
In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle. Declination's angle is measured north or south of the celestial equator, along the hour circle passing through the point in question.[1] Right ascension
Right ascension
and declination as seen on the inside of the celestial sphere. The primary direction of the system is the vernal equinox, the ascending node of the ecliptic (red) on the celestial equator (blue). Declination
Declination
is measured northward or southward from the celestial equator, along the hour circle passing through the point in question.The root of the word declination (Latin, declinatio) means "a bending away" or "a bending down"
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