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Gabriel García Márquez
Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez (/ɡɑːrˈsiːə ˈmɑːrkɛs/;[1] American Spanish: [ɡaˈβɾjel ɣarˈsi.a ˈmarkes] ( listen);[2] 6 March 1927 – 17 April 2014) was a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter and journalist, known affectionately as Gabo [ˈɡaβo] or Gabito [ɡaˈβito] throughout Latin America. Considered one of the most significant authors of the 20th century and one of the best in the Spanish language, he was awarded the 1972 Neustadt International Prize for Literature and the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature.[3] He pursued a self-directed education that resulted in his leaving law school for a career in journalism. From early on, he showed no inhibitions in his criticism of Colombian and foreign politics
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Spanish Naming Customs
Spanish naming customs
Spanish naming customs
are historical traditions for naming children practised in Spain. According to these customs, a person's name consists of a given name (simple or composite) followed by two family names (surnames). The first surname is usually the father's first surname, and the second the mother's first surname. In recent years, the order of the surnames can be decided at birth. Often, the practice is to use one given name and the first surname only (e.g. Miguel de Unamuno), with the full name being used in legal, formal, and documentary matters, or for disambiguation when the first surname is very common (e.g. Federico García Lorca). [1]. In these cases, it is common to use only the second surname, as in “Lorca” or “Zapatero”
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Bogotazo
El Bogotazo
Bogotazo
(from "Bogotá" and the -azo suffix of violent augmentation) refers to the massive riots that followed the assassination in Bogotá, Colombia, of Liberal leader and presidential candidate Jorge Eliécer Gaitán
Jorge Eliécer Gaitán
on 9 April 1948 during the government of President Mariano Ospina Pérez. The 10-hour riot left much of downtown Bogotá
Bogotá
destroyed. The aftershock of Gaitan's murder continued extending through the countryside and escalated a period of violence which had begun eighteen years before, in 1930, and was triggered by the fall of the conservative party from government and the rise of the liberals. The 1946 presidential elections brought the downfall of the liberals allowing conservative Mariano Ospina Pérez to win the presidency
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Colombian Liberal Party
The Colombian Liberal Party
Colombian Liberal Party
(Spanish: Partido Liberal Colombiano; PLC) is a social-democratic and social liberal political party in Colombia. It was founded as a classical liberal party but later developed a more social-democratic tradition, joining the Socialist International
Socialist International
in 1999.[1] The Liberal Party was the dominant force in Colombian politics alongside the Colombian Conservative Party
Colombian Conservative Party
until 2002, when the election victory of independent candidate Alvaro Uribe
Alvaro Uribe
put an end to dominance of two party politics in Colombia. [3] Currently, the Liberal Party is the second largest party in Congress, and has formed a coalition pact with the Social Party of National Unity, the governing party in Colombia
Colombia
under the presidency of Juan Manuel Santos
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Surname
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).[1] Depending on the culture all members of a family unit may have identical surnames or there may be variations based on the cultural rules. In the English-speaking world, a surname is commonly referred to as a last name because it is usually placed at the end of a person's full name, after any given names. In many parts of Asia, as well as some parts of Europe
Europe
and Africa, the family name is placed before a person's given name. In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries, two surnames are commonly used and in some families that claim a connection to nobility even three are used. Surnames have not always existed and today are not universal in all cultures. This tradition has arisen separately in different cultures around the world
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Sucre (Colombia)
Sucre (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈsukɾe]) is a department in the Caribbean Region of Colombia. The department ranks 27th by area, 10,670 km2 (4,120 sq mi) and it has a population of 772,010, ranking 20th of all the 32 departments of Colombia
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Compañía De Jesús
The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
(SJ – from Latin: Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
which originated in sixteenth-century Spain. The members are called Jesuits.[2] The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits
Jesuits
work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities, and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits
Jesuits
also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, and promote ecumenical dialogue. Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona
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Zipaquirá
Zipaquirá (Spanish pronunciation: [sipakiˈɾa]) is a municipality and city of Colombia in the department of Cundinamarca. Its neighboring municipalities are Tausa and Cogua to the north; Nemocón, Gachancipá and Sopó to the east; Cajicá and Tabio to the south; and Subachoque and Pacho to the west. Its seat of municipal government is 49 kilometers from Santa Fe de Bogotá. It is part of the Greater Bogotá Metropolitan Area, and is the capital of the province. It is also the headquarters of the diocese of the same name and that includes much of the Department of Cundinamarca, extending to the centre of Bogotá, the region of Rionegro, the Ubaté Valley, and the region of Guavio. The town is primarily known for its Salt Cathedral, an underground church built inside a salt mine in a tunnel made as result of the excavation of the salinas. Zipaquirá has an original architecture, and the old city centre is a tourist attraction
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Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo KBE (/ˈbɔːrhɛs/;[1] Spanish: [ˈxorxe ˈlwis ˈborxes]  audio (help·info); 24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish-language literature. His best-known books, Ficciones (Fictions) and El Aleph (The Aleph), published in the 1940s, are compilations of short stories interconnected by common themes, including dreams, labyrinths, libraries, mirrors, fictional writers, philosophy, and religion.[2] Borges' works have contributed to philosophical literature and the fantasy genre
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El Universal (Colombia)
El Universal (English: The Universal) is a regional newspaper based in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia founded in 1948 by Domingo López Escauriaza and Eduardo Ferrer Ferrer.[2] El Universal is member of the Latin American Newspaper Association, an organization of fourteen leading newspapers in South America.[1] References[edit]^ a b "El Universal" (in Spanish). Latin American Newspaper Association. Retrieved 23 April 2013.  ^ "El Universal" (PDF) (in Spanish). Bogotá: Colombian Association of Newspaper and News Media Publishers. Retrieved 25 April 2013. This article about a Colombian newspaper is a stub
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Sincé
Sincé is a town and municipality located in the Department of Sucre, northern Colombia. San Luis de Sincé, is a town and municipality located in the Department of Sucre, 28 km (15 mi) southeast of Sincelejo, in northern Colombia. It has an average Temperature of 26,5°C (80°F). Its main economic activities are agriculture, stockbreeding and commerce. It was founded November 10, 1775 by Antonio de Torre y Miranda. Sincé is home to "Hospital Local Nuestra Señora del Socorro" and a Municipal Photo Gallery. Celebrations and Events[edit] The biggest local celebrations are held in honor of the Virgen del Socorro (Our Lady of Perpetual Help), the city's patron Saint, and celebrated in September
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El Heraldo (Barranquilla)
El Heraldo (English: The Herald) is a regional newspaper based in the city of Barranquilla, Colombia, founded in 1933 by Juan Fernández Ortega, Luis Eduardo Manotas Llinás, and Alberto Pumarejo Vengoechea.[1] It is the third highest circulating newspaper in Colombia mostly covering the area of the Colombian Caribbean Region and other main cities in the country. References[edit]^ "El Heraldo" (PDF) (in Spanish). Bogotá: Colombian Association of Newspaper and News Media Publishers. Retrieved 25 April 2013. This article about a Colombian newspaper is a stub
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El Universal (Cartagena)
El Universal (English: The Universal) is a regional newspaper based in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia founded in 1948 by Domingo López Escauriaza and Eduardo Ferrer Ferrer.[2] El Universal is member of the Latin American Newspaper Association, an organization of fourteen leading newspapers in South America.[1] References[edit]^ a b "El Universal" (in Spanish). Latin American Newspaper Association. Retrieved 23 April 2013.  ^ "El Universal" (PDF) (in Spanish). Bogotá: Colombian Association of Newspaper and News Media Publishers. Retrieved 25 April 2013. This article about a Colombian newspaper is a stub
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Caracas
Caracas
Caracas
(Spanish pronunciation: [kaˈɾakas]; locally [kaˈɾaːka]), officially Santiago
Santiago
de León de Caracas, is the capital, the center of the Greater Caracas
Greater Caracas
Area, and the largest city of Venezuela. Caracas
Caracas
is located along the Guaire River in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas
Caracas
Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range (Cordillera de la Costa). Terrain suitable for building lies between 760 and 1,140 m (2,490 and 3,740 ft) above sea level, although there is some settlement above this range
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1958 Venezuelan Coup D'état
The 1958 Venezuelan coup d'état took place on 23 January 1958, when the dictator Marcos Pérez Jiménez was overthrown. A transition government under first Adm. Wolfgang Larrazábal and then Edgar Sanabria was put in place until December 1958 elections saw Democratic Action candidate Rómulo Betancourt elected and take office on 13 February 1959. One of Caracas' neighbourhoods, Barrio 23 de Enero (23 January neighbourhood), is named for the event.Contents1 Events 2 Aftermath 3 See also 4 ReferencesEvents[edit] On 23 January 1958, a civilian-military movement overthrew the government of Gen. Marcos Pérez Jiménez. The closest precedent for such an event occurred on 1 January of the same year, when warplanes soared into the sky over waking Caracas
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Marcos Pérez Jiménez
Marcos Evangelista Pérez Jiménez (25 April 1914 – 20 September 2001) was a Venezuelan military and general officer of the Army of Venezuela
Venezuela
and the President of Venezuela
Venezuela
from 1952 to 1958. His ruling period is characterized by marked improvement in development, with the rise of oil prices facilitating many public works achievements. Political and economic stability, along with the completion of ambitious public works and the rapid development of industries such as hydroelectricity, mining, and steel. He instituted some programs to eradicate many of Venezuela's rapidly growing slums, but mainly in Caracas. Pérez presided over one of the most repressive governments in Latin America
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