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GPRS
General Packet Radio Service
General Packet Radio Service
(GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service on the 2G and 3G cellular communication system's global system for mobile communications (GSM). GPRS was originally standardized by European Telecommunications Standards Institute
European Telecommunications Standards Institute
(ETSI) in response to the earlier CDPD and i-mode packet-switched cellular technologies. It is now maintained by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).[1][2] GPRS usage is typically charged based on volume of data transferred, contrasting with circuit switched data, which is usually billed per minute of connection time. Sometimes billing time is broken down to every third of a minute
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Packet Oriented
Statistical multiplexing
Statistical multiplexing
is a type of communication link sharing, very similar to dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA). In statistical multiplexing, a communication channel is divided into an arbitrary number of variable bitrate digital channels or data streams. The link sharing is adapted to the instantaneous traffic demands of the data streams that are transferred over each channel. This is an alternative to creating a fixed sharing of a link, such as in general time division multiplexing (TDM) and frequency division multiplexing (FDM). When performed correctly, statistical multiplexing can provide a link utilization improvement, called the statistical multiplexing gain. Statistical multiplexing
Statistical multiplexing
is facilitated through packet mode or packet-oriented communication, which among others is utilized in packet switched computer networks
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Internet Protocol Control Protocol
In computer networking, Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
Control Protocol (IPCP) is a Network Control Protocol (NCP) for establishing and configuring Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
over a Point-to-Point Protocol link. IPCP is responsible for configuring the IP addresses as well as for enabling and disabling the IP protocol modules on both ends of the point-to-point link. IPCP uses the same packet exchange mechanism as the Link Control Protocol. IPCP packets may not be exchanged until PPP has reached the Network-Layer Protocol phase, and any IPCP packets received before this phase is reached should be silently discarded. IPCP has the NCP protocol code number 0x8021. Each of the two endpoints of a PPP connection must send an IPCP configure request to its peer because the TCP/IP options are independent for each direction of a PPP connection.[1] A PPP endpoint can request a specific IP address from its peer
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Point-to-point (telecommunications)
In telecommunications, a point-to-point connection refers to a communications connection between two nodes or endpoints. An example is a telephone call, in which one telephone is connected with one other, and what is said by one caller can only be heard by the other. This is contrasted with a point-to-multipoint or broadcast connection, in which many nodes can receive information transmitted by one node. Other examples of point-to-point communications links are leased lines, microwave relay links, and two way radio. The term is also used in computer networking and computer architecture to refer to a wire or other connection that links only two computers or circuits, as opposed to other network topologies such as buses or crossbar switches which can connect many communications devices. Point-to-point is sometimes abbreviated as P2P
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Point-to-multipoint Communication
In telecommunications, point-to-multipoint communication (P2MP, PTMP or PMP) is communication which is accomplished via a distinct type of one-to-many connection, providing multiple paths from a single location to multiple locations.[1] Point-to-multipoint telecommunications is typically used in wireless Internet
Internet
and IP telephony
IP telephony
via gigahertz radio frequencies. P2MP systems have been designed with and without a return channel from the multiple receivers
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Internet Protocol
The Internet
Internet
Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite
Internet protocol suite
for relaying packets across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet. IP has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers. For this purpose, IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information. Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf
Vint Cerf
and Bob Kahn in 1974; the other being the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
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Mobile Browser
A mobile browser is a web browser designed for use on a mobile device such as a mobile phone or PDA. Mobile browsers are optimized so as to display Web content most effectively for small screens on portable devices. Mobile browser software must be small and efficient to accommodate the low memory capacity and low-bandwidth of wireless handheld devices. Typically they were stripped-down web browsers, but some more modern mobile browsers can handle more recent technologies like CSS 2.1, JavaScript, and Ajax. Websites designed for access from these browsers are referred to as wireless portals[1] or collectively as the Mobile Web
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IPv4
Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP). It is one of the core protocols of standards-based internetworking methods in the Internet, and was the first version deployed for production in the ARPANET
ARPANET
in 1983. It still routes most Internet
Internet
traffic today,[1] despite the ongoing deployment of a successor protocol, IPv6. IPv4
IPv4
is described in IETF
IETF
publication RFC 791 (September 1981), replacing an earlier definition (RFC 760, January 1980). IPv4
IPv4
is a connectionless protocol for use on packet-switched networks. It operates on a best effort delivery model, in that it does not guarantee delivery, nor does it assure proper sequencing or avoidance of duplicate delivery
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IPv6
Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet. IPv6
IPv6
was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to deal with the long-anticipated problem of IPv4
IPv4
address exhaustion. IPv6
IPv6
is intended to replace IPv4.[1] IPv6
IPv6
became a Draft Standard in December 1998, but did not formally become an Internet
Internet
Standard until 14 July 2017.[2] Every device on the Internet
Internet
is assigned a unique IP address
IP address
for identification and location definition
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Point-to-Point Protocol
In computer networking, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link layer (layer 2) communications protocol used to establish a direct connection between two nodes. It connects two routers directly without any host or any other networking device in between. It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption,[1] and compression. PPP is used over many types of physical networks including serial cable, phone line, trunk line, cellular telephone, specialized radio links, and fiber optic links such as SONET
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Mobile Phone Operator
A mobile phone operator, wireless provider, or carrier is a mobile telecommunications company that provides wireless Internet
Internet
GSM services for mobile device users
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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP) is a network management protocol used on TCP/IP
TCP/IP
networks whereby a DHCP server dynamically assigns an IP address
IP address
and other network configuration parameters to each device on a network so they can communicate with other IP networks.[1] A DHCP server enables computers to request IP addresses and networking parameters automatically from the Internet service provider (ISP), reducing the need for a network administrator or a user to manually assign IP addresses to all network devices.[1] In the absence of a DHCP server, a computer or other device on the network needs to be manually assigned an IP address. DHCP can be implemented on networks ranging in size from home networks to large campus networks and regional Internet service provider networks.[2] A router or a residential gateway can be enabled to act as a DHCP server
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Multimedia Messaging Service
Multimedia
Multimedia
Messaging Service (MMS) is a standard way to send messages that include multimedia content to and from a mobile phone over a cellular network
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X.25
X.25
X.25
is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication. An X.25
X.25
WAN consists of packet-switching exchange (PSE) nodes as the networking hardware, and leased lines, plain old telephone service connections, or ISDN
ISDN
connections as physical links. X.25
X.25
is a family of protocols that was popular during the 1980s with telecommunications companies and in financial transaction systems such as automated teller machines
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Router (computing)
A router[a] is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another router through the networks that constitute an internetwork until it reaches its destination node.[2] A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks.[b] When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the network address information in the packet to determine the ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. The most familiar type of routers are home and small office routers that simply forward IP packets between the home computers and the Internet
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Internet Protocol Suite
The Internet protocol
Internet protocol
suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet
Internet
and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP because the foundational protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) and the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP). It is occasionally known as the Department of Defense (DoD) model, because the development of the networking method was funded by the United States Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
through DARPA. The Internet protocol
Internet protocol
suite provides end-to-end data communication specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed, and received
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