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GNU Programs
This list of GNU
GNU
packages lists notable software packages developed for or maintained by the Free Software Foundation
Free Software Foundation
as
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Software Package (installation)
A package manager or package management system is a collection of software tools that automates the process of installing, upgrading, configuring, and removing computer programs for a computer's operating system in a consistent manner.[1] A package manager deals with packages, distributions of software and data in archive files. Packages contain metadata, such as the software's name, description of its purpose, version number, vendor, checksum, and a list of dependencies necessary for the software to run properly. Upon installation, metadata is stored in a local package database. Package managers typically maintain a database of software dependencies and version information to prevent software mismatches and missing prerequisites. They work closely with software repositories, binary repository managers, and app stores. Package managers are designed to eliminate the need for manual installs and updates
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Tac (Unix)
The GNU
GNU
Core Utilities or coreutils is a package of GNU
GNU
software containing reimplementations for many of the basic tools, such as cat, ls, and rm, used on Unix-like
Unix-like
operating systems.Contents1 History 2 Capabilities 3 Alternatives 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] In September 2002 the GNU
GNU
coreutils were created by merging the earlier packages textutils, shellutils, and fileutils, along with some other miscellaneous utilities.[2] In July 2007 the license of the GNU coreutils was updated from GPLv2 to GPLv3.[3] Capabilities[edit] The GNU
GNU
core utilities support long options as parameters to the commands, as well as (unless the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable is set) the relaxed convention allowing options even after the regular arguments
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Cksum
cksum is a command in Unix-like
Unix-like
operating systems that generates a checksum value for a file or stream of data. The cksum command reads each file given in its arguments, or standard input if no arguments are provided, and outputs the file's CRC checksum and byte count. The cksum command can be used to verify that files transferred by unreliable means arrived intact.[1] However, the CRC checksum calculated by the cksum command is not cryptographically secure: While it guards against accidental corruption (it is unlikely that the corrupted data will have the same checksum as the intended data), it is not difficult for an attacker to deliberately corrupt the file in a specific way that its checksum is unchanged
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Head (Unix)
head is a program on Unix
Unix
and Unix-like
Unix-like
systems used to display the beginning of a text file or piped data. The command syntax is:head [options] <file_name>By default, head will print the first 10 lines of its input to the standard output. The number of lines printed may be changed with a command line option. The following example shows the first 20 lines of filename:head -n 20 filenameThis displays the first 5 lines of all files starting with foo:head -n 5 foo*Most versions allow omitting the n and just let you say -5
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Tail (Unix)
tail is a program on Unix
Unix
and Unix-like
Unix-like
systems used to display the tail end of a text file or piped data.Contents1 Syntax 2 File monitoring 3 Variants 4 See also 5 External linksSyntax[edit] The command-syntax is: tail [options] <filename>By default, tail will output the last 10 lines of its input to the standard output. With command line options, the amount of output and the units (lines, blocks or bytes) may be changed. In the following example only the last line of the reports is output:> tail -n1 report-13* ==> report-1301 <== Total tons output for month of January '13 was 523==> report-1302 <== Total tons output for month of February '13 was 272==> report-1303 <== Total tons output for month of March '13 was 623This example outputs the last 4 characters of the reports, silently suppressing the filenames
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Md5sum
md5sum is a computer program that calculates and verifies 128-bit MD5 hashes, as described in RFC 1321. The MD5
MD5
hash functions as a compact digital fingerprint of a file. As with all such hashing algorithms, there is theoretically an unlimited number of files that will have any given MD5
MD5
hash. However, it is very unlikely that any two non-identical files in the real world will have the same MD5
MD5
hash, unless they have been specifically created to have the same hash. The underlying MD5
MD5
algorithm is no longer deemed secure. Thus, while md5sum is well-suited for identifying known files in situations that are not security related, it should not be relied on if there is a chance that files have been purposefully and maliciously tampered
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Nl (Unix)
nl is a Unix
Unix
utility for numbering lines, either from a file or from standard input, reproducing output on standard output. It has a number of switches:a - number all lines t - number lines with printable text only n - no line numbering string - number only those lines containing the regular expression defined in the string supplied.The default applied switch is t. nl also supports some command line options. Example[edit] $ nl tf 1 echo press cr 2 read cr 3 doneThe following example numbers only the lines that begin with a capital letter A (matching on the regular expression /^A/)
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Od (Unix)
od is a program for displaying ("dumping") data in various human-readable output formats. The name is an acronym for "octal dump" since it defaults to printing in the octal data format. It can also display output in a variety of other formats, including hexadecimal, decimal, and ASCII. It is useful for visualizing data that is not in a human-readable format, like the executable code of a program. od is one of the earliest Unix
Unix
programs, having appeared in version 1 AT&T Unix. It is also specified in the POSIX standards. The implementation for od used on Linux
Linux
systems is usually provided by GNU Core Utilities. Since it predates the Bourne shell, its existence causes an inconsistency in the do loop syntax. Other loops and logical blocks are opened by the name, and closed by the reversed name, e.g. if ... fi and case ... esac, but od's existence necessitates do ..
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Tsort (Unix)
The tsort program is a command line utility on Unix-like
Unix-like
platforms, that performs a topological sort on its input.Contents1 History 2 Syntax 3 Behavior 4 Examples 5 Usage notes 6 See also 7 References7.1 Further reading8 External linksHistory[edit] According to its info[1] page, this command was initially written for providing an ordering of object files that allowed the linker to process them sequentially (each one exactly once, and in order). Note that the following description is describing the behaviour of the FreeBSD
FreeBSD
implementation of tsort and mentions GNU features where they may exist
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Join (Unix)
join is a command in Unix-like
Unix-like
operating systems that merges the lines of two sorted text files based on the presence of a common field. It is similar to the join operator used in relational databases but operating on text files. The join command takes as input two text files and a number of options. If no command-line argument is given, this command looks for a pair of lines from the two files having the same first field (a sequence of characters that are different from space), and outputs a line composed of the first field followed by the rest of the two lines. The program arguments specify which character to be used in place of space to separate the fields of the line, which field to use when looking for matching lines, and whether to output lines that do not match. The output can be stored to another file rather than printing using redirection. As an example, the two following files list the known fathers and the mothers of some people
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Wc (Unix)
wc (short for word count) is a command in Unix-like
Unix-like
operating systems. The program reads either standard input or a list of files and generates one or more of the following statistics: newline count, word count, and byte count. If a list of files is provided, both individual file and total statistics follow. Sample execution of wc: $ wc foo bar 40 149 947 foo 2294 16638 97724 bar 2334 16787 98671 totalThe first column is the count of newlines, meaning that the text file foo has 40 newlines while bar has 2294 newlines- resulting in a total of 2334 newlines. The second column indicates the number of words in each text file showing that there are 149 words in foo and 16638 words in bar – giving a total of 16787 words
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Paste (Unix)
paste is a Unix
Unix
command line utility which is used to join files horizontally (parallel merging) by outputting lines consisting of the sequentially corresponding lines of each file specified, separated by tabs, to the standard output. It is effectively the horizontal equivalent to the utility cat command which operates on the vertical plane of two or more files.Contents1 Usage 2 Description 3 Options 4 Examples 5 See also 6 ReferencesUsage[edit] The paste utility is invoked with the following syntax:paste [options] [file1 ..]Description[edit] Once invoked, paste will read all its file arguments. For each corresponding line, paste will append the contents of each file at that line to its output along with a tab
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Rm (Unix)
rm (short for remove) is a basic UNIX command used to remove objects such as files, directories, device nodes, symbolic links, and so on from the filesystem. rm command removes references to objects from the filesystem, where those objects might have had multiple references (for example, a file with two different names), and the objects themselves are discarded only when all references have been removed and no programs still have open handles to the objects. This allows for scenarios where a program can open a file, immediately remove it from the filesystem, and then use it for temporary space, knowing that the file's space will be reclaimed after the program exits, even if it exits by crashing. rm generally does not destroy file data, since its purpose is really merely to unlink references, and the filesystem space freed may still contain leftover data from the removed file
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Basename
basename is a standard UNIX
UNIX
computer program. When basename is given a pathname, it will delete any prefix up to the last slash ('/') character and return the result
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