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Gnu
GNU
GNU
/ɡnuː/ ( listen)[3][4] is an operating system[5][6][7][8] and an extensive collection of computer software. GNU
GNU
is composed wholly of free software,[9][10][11] most of which is licensed under the
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ETRAX CRIS
The ETRAX CRIS is a series of CPUs designed and manufactured by Axis Communications for use in embedded systems since 1993.[1] The name is an acronym of the chip's features: Ethernet, Token Ring, AXis - Code Reduced Instruction Set. Token ring support has been taken out from the latest chips as it has become obsolete.Contents1 Types of chips1.1 ETRAX 1.2 ETRAX 100LX 1.3 ETRAX 100LX MCM 1.4 ETRAX FS2 Development tools2.1 Software 2.2 Hardware3 Operating system support 4 References 5 External linksTypes of chips[edit] The TGA (Twinax Gate Array), developed in 1986, was a communications transceiver for the AS/400 architecture. The First chip with embedded microcontroller was the CGA-1 (Coax Gate Array) which contained both IBM 3270 (coax) communications and AS/400 communications (Twinax). It also had a small microcontroller and various IO:s, including serial and parallel interfaces
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DEC Alpha
Alpha, originally known as Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation
(DEC), designed to replace their 32-bit VAX
VAX
complex instruction set computer (CISC) ISA. Alpha was implemented in microprocessors originally developed and fabricated by DEC. These microprocessors were most prominently used in a variety of DEC workstations and servers, which eventually formed the basis for almost all of their mid-to-upper-scale lineup
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TILE64
TILE64 is a multicore processor manufactured by Tilera. It consists of a mesh network of 64 "tiles", where each tile houses a general purpose processor, cache, and a non-blocking router, which the tile uses to communicate with the other tiles on the processor. The short-pipeline, in-order, three-issue cores implement a MIPS-inspired[1] VLIW instruction set. Each core has a register file and three functional units: two integer arithmetic logic units and a load-store unit. Each of the cores ("tile") has its own L1 and L2 caches plus an overall virtual L3 cache which is an aggregate of all the L2 caches.[2] A core is able to run a full operating system on its own or multiple cores can be used to run a symmetrical multi-processing operating system. TILE64 has four DDR2 controllers, two 10-gigabit Ethernet interfaces, two four-lane PCIe interfaces, and a "flexible" input/output interface, which can be software-configured to handle a number of protocols
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S+core
S+core is a hybrid 32/16-bit instruction set architecture designed by Sunplus Technology.Contents1 S+core architecture 2 Company information 3 Products featuring Sunplus integrated circuits3.1 SPG (S+core) 3.2 SPLB31A/GPLB31A (8502 8-bit)4 See also 5 References 6 External linksS+core architecture[edit] The 32-bit microarchitecture features Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA) support and includes SJTAG for In-circuit emulation. It is implemented on the Sunplus SPG290 system-on-a-chip (SoC).[1] It is supported by the Linux kernel since version 2.6.32.[2] Company information[edit] Sunplus Technology is a fabless design company based in Taiwan. The company's chief executive is Sun Ching-jie.[3] Before the SPG (S+core) the company designed the 8bit SPLB31A/GPLB31A and PLB20D2 based on the MOS Technology 8502 and 6502 microprocessors respectively
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S390
"System/390 introduces the IBM
IBM
Enterprise System/9000 family" was how IBM
IBM
Marketing simultaneously announced on September 5, 1990 its next mainframe offerings, using two important numbered names:390,[1] as in 360, 370, ..
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Software Developer
A software developer is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming, and testing of computer software. Other job titles which are often used with similar meanings are programmer, software analyst, and software engineer. According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development, and programming are more apparent. Already in the current market place there can be found a segregation between programmers and developers, being that one who implements is not the same as the one who designs the class structure or hierarchy. Even more so that developers become software architects or systems architects, those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system.[1] In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of only one of the phases above
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Programming Language
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output. Programming languages generally consist of instructions for a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that implement specific algorithms. The earliest known programmable machine that preceded the invention of the digital computer was the automatic flute player described in the 9th century by the brothers Musa in Baghdad, during the Islamic Golden Age.[1] From the early 1800s, "programs" were used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms, music boxes and player pianos.[2] Thousands of different programming languages have been created, mainly in the computer field, and many more still are being created every year
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MN103
The MN103
MN103
is a 32-bit microprocessor series developed by Matsushita Electric Industrial, now Panasonic
Panasonic
Corporation. Most variants include a media processor, working as an image processor or video processor. It is used in digital cameras, set-top boxes and DVD players. It was supported by the Linux kernel
Linux kernel
from version 2.6.25.[1] until version 4.16.[2] A newer enhanced version is the MN103S. References[edit]^ "mn10300: add the MN10300/AM33 architecture to the kernel". kernel.org
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Unicore32
Unicore is the name of a computer instruction set architecture designed by Microprocessor Research and Development Center (MPRC) of Peking University in the PRC
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Imagination META
The META is a 32-bit
32-bit
multithreaded microprocessor developed by Metagence Technologies Division from Imagination Technologies.[1] First version of META were developed in 2001 as META-1 multithreaded DSP core aimed for audio, radio and video processing.[2] META HTP core family was announced in 2007 and is based on META-2 architecture.[3][4] META family consists of Meta HTP applications processors (400–700 MHz on 65L - 65G process[3]), META MTP Embedded Processors and Meta LTP Embedded Microcontrollers.[5] It is supported by the Linux kernel
Linux kernel
as of version 3.9.[6][7][8] In 2018 March, LWN.net
LWN.net
reported that Imagination Technologies redirected its focus away from Meta after its purchase of MIPS Technologies in 2012. This has led to a proposal on Linux development mailing lists to remove support for the architecture from the kernel. [9] References[edit]^ Henry Davis (2006-03-20)
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Qualcomm Hexagon
Hexagon (QDSP6) is the brand for a family of 32-bit multi-threaded microarchitectures implementing the same instruction set for a digital signal processor (DSP) developed by Qualcomm. According to 2012 estimation, Qualcomm
Qualcomm
shipped 1.2 billion DSP cores inside its system on a chip (SoCs) (average 2.3 DSP core per SoC) in 2011 year, and 1.5 billion cores were planned for 2012, making the QDSP6 the most shipped architecture of DSP[2] (CEVA had around 1 billion of DSP cores shipped in 2011 with 90% of IP-licenseable DSP market[3]). The Hexagon architecture is designed to deliver performance with low power over a variety of applications. It has features such as hardware assisted multithreading, privilege levels, Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW), Single Instruction, Multiple Data (SIMD),[4][5] and instructions geared toward efficient signal processing
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AVR32
The AVR32 is a 32-bit
32-bit
RISC
RISC
microcontroller architecture produced by Atmel. The microcontroller architecture was designed by a handful of people educated at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, including lead designer Øyvind Strøm, PhD and CPU architect Erik Renno, M.Sc in Atmel's Norwegian design center. Most instructions are executed in a single-cycle. The multiply–accumulate unit can perform a 32-bit
32-bit
× 16-bit + 48-bit arithmetic operation in two cycles (result latency), issued once per cycle. It does not resemble the 8-bit AVR, even though they were both designed at Atmel
Atmel
Norway, in Trondheim
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Synopsys ARC
Coordinates: 37°23′32″N 122°02′50″W / 37.3921°N 122.0471°W / 37.3921; -122.0471 Synopsys, Inc., an American company, is the leading company by sales in the Electronic Design Automation industry.[3] Synopsys' first and best-known product is Design Compiler, a logic-synthesis tool. Synopsys offers a wide range of other products used in the design of an application-specific integrated circuit. Products include logic synthesis, behavioral synthesis, place and route, static timing analysis, formal verification, hardware description language (SystemC, SystemVerilog/Verilog, VHDL) simulators as well as transistor-level circuit simulation. The simulators include development and debugging environments which assist in the design of the logic for chips and computer systems
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MIPS Architecture
MIPS (an acronym for Microprocessor
Microprocessor
without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA)[1]:A-1[2]:19 developed by MIPS Technologies (formerly MIPS Computer Systems). The early MIPS architectures were 32-bit, with 64-bit versions added later. There are multiple versions of MIPS: including MIPS I, II, III, IV, and V; as well as five releases of MIPS32/64 (for 32- and 64-bit implementations, respectively)
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IA-32
IA-32 (short for " Intel
Intel
Architecture, 32-bit", sometimes also called i386[1][2])[3] is the 32-bit
32-bit
version of the x86 instruction set architecture, first implemented in the Intel 80386
Intel 80386
microprocessors in 1985. IA-32 is the first incarnation of x86 that supports 32-bit computing;[4] as a result, the "IA-32" term may be used as a metonym to refer to all x86 versions that support 32-bit
32-bit
computing.[5][6] The IA-32 instruction set was introduced in the Intel
Intel
80386 microprocessor in 1985 and, as of 2017[update], remains supported by contemporary PC microprocessors. Even though the instruction set has remained intact, the successive generations of microprocessors that run it have become much faster
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