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Frumka Płotnicka
Frumka Płotnicka
Frumka Płotnicka
(Pińsk, 1914 – August 3, 1943, Będzin) was a Polish Jewish resistance fighter during World War II; activist of the Jewish Fighting Organization
Jewish Fighting Organization
(ŻOB) and member of the Labour Zionist organization Dror. She was one of the organizers of self-defence in the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto, and participant in the military preparations for the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising. Following the liquidation of the Ghetto, Płotnicka relocated to the Dąbrowa Basin in southern Poland
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Cichociemni
Cichociemni
Cichociemni
(Polish pronunciation: [t͡ɕixɔˈt͡ɕɛmɲi]; the "Silent Unseen") were elite special-operations paratroops of the Polish Army in exile, created in Great Britain
Great Britain
during World War II
World War II
to operate in occupied Poland ( Cichociemni
Cichociemni
Spadochroniarze Armii Krajowej).[2] Altogether 2,613 Polish Army soldiers volunteered for training by Polish and British SOE operatives. Only 606 people completed the training, and eventually 316 of them were secretly parachuted into occupied Poland. The first operation ("air bridge", as it was called) took place on 15 February 1941. This operation was conducted by Captain Józef Zabielski, Major Stanisław Krzymowski and political courier Czesław Raczkowski
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Final Solution
The Final Solution
Final Solution
(German: Endlösung) or the Final Solution
Final Solution
to the Jewish Question
Jewish Question
(German: die Endlösung der Judenfrage, pronounced [diː ˈɛntˌløːzʊŋ deːɐ̯ ˈjuːdn̩ˌfʁaːɡə]) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews
Jews
during World War II
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Hand Grenade
A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand. Generally, a grenade consists of an explosive charge, a detonating mechanism, and firing pin to trigger the detonating mechanism. Once the soldier throws the grenade, the safety lever releases, the striker throws the safety lever away from the grenade body as it rotates to detonate the primer. The primer explodes and ignites the fuse (sometimes called the delay element). The fuse burns down to the detonator, which explodes the main charge. There are several types of grenades such as fragmentation grenades and stick grenades. Fragmentation grenades are probably the most common in armies. They are weapons that are designed to disperse lethal fragments on detonation. The body is generally made of a hard synthetic material or steel, which will provide some fragmentation as shards and splinters, though in modern grenades a pre-formed fragmentation matrix is often used
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Yiddish
Yiddish
Yiddish
(ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish", pronounced [ˈjɪdɪʃ] [ˈɪdɪʃ]; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German)[3] is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century[4] in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and traces of Romance languages.[5][6] Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet. The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז‎ (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש‎ (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German
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Territories Of Poland Annexed By The Soviet Union
17 days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
invaded the eastern regions of the Second Polish Republic, which Poland re-established during the Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
and referred to as the "Kresy", and annexed territories totaling 201,015 square kilometres (77,612 sq mi) with a population of 13,299,000 inhabitants including Lithuanians,Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, Jews, Czechs and others. Most of these territories remained within the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1945 as a consequence of European-wide territorial rearrangements configured during the Tehran Conference
Tehran Conference
of 1943
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Zivia Lubetkin
Zivia Lubetkin (Polish: Cywia Lubetkin IPA: [ˈt͡sɨvja luˈbɛtkʲin], Hebrew: צביה לובטקין‬, nom de guerre: Celina; 1914–1976) was one of the leaders of the Jewish underground in Nazi-occupied Warsaw and the only woman on the High Command of the resistance group Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB). She survived the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland and immigrated to Mandate Palestine in 1946, at the age of 32.Contents1 Biography1.1 Pre-World War II 1.2 World War II 1.3 Postwar life2 Writings 3 Notes 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] Pre-World War II[edit] Zivia Lubetkin was born in Poland in Byteń near Słonim (now in Belarus). She joined the Labor Zionist Movement at an early age. In her late teens she joined the Zionist youth movement Dror, and in 1938 became a member of its Executive Council
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Syenite
Syenite
Syenite
is a coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock with a general composition similar to that of granite, but deficient in quartz, which, if present at all, occurs in relatively small concentrations (<5%). Some syenites contain larger proportions of mafic components and smaller amounts of felsic material than most granites; those are classed as being of intermediate composition. The volcanic equivalent of syenite is trachyte.Contents1 Composition of syenites 2 Formation of syenites 3 Occurrence of syenites 4 Etymology 5 Episyenite 6 References 7 See alsoComposition of syenites[edit] The feldspar component of syenite is predominantly alkaline in character (usually orthoclase). Plagioclase
Plagioclase
feldspars may be present in small proportions, less than 10%
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Warsaw
From top, left to right: Warsaw
Warsaw
Skyline Royal Baths Park Royal Route Staszic Palace
Staszic Palace
and Copernicus Monument
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Nazi Germany
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here
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Holocaust Trains
Holocaust trains
Holocaust trains
were railway transports run by the Deutsche Reichsbahn national railway system under the strict supervision of the German Nazis and their allies, for the purpose of forcible deportation of the Jews, as well as other victims of the Holocaust, to the German Nazi concentration, forced labour, and extermination camps.[2][3] Modern historians suggest that without the mass transportation of the railways, the scale of the "Final Solution" would not have been possible.[4] The extermination of people targeted in the "Final Solution" was dependent on two factors: the capacity of the death camps to gas the victims and "process" their bodies quickly enough, as well as the capacity of the railways to transport the victims from the Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe
Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe
and Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland to selected extermination sites
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SS
The Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes; German pronunciation: [ˈʃʊtsˌʃtafl̩] ( listen); literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe
German-occupied Europe
during World War II. It began with a small guard unit known as the Saal-Schutz ("Hall Security") made up of NSDAP
NSDAP
volunteers to provide security for party meetings in Munich. In 1925 Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
joined the unit, which had by then been reformed and given its final name. Under his direction (1929–45) it grew from a small paramilitary formation to one of the most powerful organizations in Nazi Germany
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Roundup (history)
A roundup (Polish: łapanka, [waˈpanka] ( listen); French: rafle or attrapage) was a widespread German World War II
World War II
military tactic used in occupied countries, especially in German-occupied Poland, whereby the SS, Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
and RSHA ambushed at random thousands of civilians on the streets of subjugated cities for enforced deportation
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Jewish Ghetto Police
The Jewish Ghetto
Ghetto
Police or Jewish Police Service (German: Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei or Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst), also called the Jewish Police by Jews, were auxiliary police units organized within the Jewish ghettos of German-occupied Poland
Poland
by local Judenrat
Judenrat
(Jewish council) collaborating with the German Nazis.[1]Contents1 Overview 2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksOverview[edit]Jewish policemen in the Łódź Ghetto
Łódź Ghetto
1940Jewish policemen in Węgrów, PolandMembers of the Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst
Ordnungsdienst
at first did not have official uniforms, often wearing just an identifying armband, a hat, and a badge, and were not allowed to carry firearms, although they did carry batons
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Oświęcim
Oświęcim
Oświęcim
(/ɒʃˈvjɛntʃiːm/;[1] Polish: [ɔɕˈfʲɛɲt͡ɕim] ( listen); German: Auschwitz; Yiddish: אָשפּיצין‎ Oshpitzin) is a town in the Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska) province of southern Poland,[2] situated 50 kilometres (31 mi) west of Cracow, near the confluence of the Vistula
Vistula
(Wisła) and Soła
Soła
rivers
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