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Froissart
Jean Froissart
Jean Froissart
(Old French, Middle French Jehan, c. 1337 – c. 1405) was a French-speaking medieval author and court historian from the Low Countries, who wrote several works, including Chronicles and Meliador, a long Arthurian romance, and a large body of poetry, both short lyrical forms, as well as longer narrative poems. For centuries, Froissart's Chronicles
Froissart's Chronicles
have been recognised as the chief expression of the chivalric revival of the 14th century Kingdom of England
England
and Kingdom of France
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Encyclopædia Britannica
The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
( Latin
Latin
for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language
English-language
encyclopaedia. It is written by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors, who have included 110 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winners and five American presidents. The 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes[1] and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition; digital content and distribution has continued since then. The Britannica is the oldest English-language
English-language
encyclopaedia still in production. It was first published between 1768 and 1771 in the Scottish capital of Edinburgh, as three volumes
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Belgium
Coordinates: 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000Kingdom of BelgiumKoninkrijk België  (Dutch) Royaume de Belgique  (French) Königreich Belgien  (German)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch) "L'union fait la force" (French) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German) "Unity makes Strength"Anthem: "La Brabançonne" "The Brabantian"Location of  Belgium  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Brussels 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350Official languages Dutch French GermanEthnic groups see DemographicsReligion (2015[1])60.7% Christianity 32.0% No religion 5.2% Islam 2.1% Other religionsDemonym BelgianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitu
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Milan
Milan
Milan
(/mɪˈlæn, -ˈlɑːn/;[3] Italian: Milano [miˈlaːno] ( listen); Lombard: Milan
Milan
[miˈlãː] (Milanese variant))[4][5] is the capital of
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Galeazzo II Visconti
Galeazzo II Visconti
Galeazzo II Visconti
(c. 1320 – 4 August 1378) was a member of the Visconti dynasty and a ruler of Milan, Italy.Contents1 Visconti family 2 Family history and events 3 Political affairs 4 Military campaigns and territorial claims 5 Legacy 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksVisconti family[edit] The founder of the Visconti house is a conflicted claim, though widespread credit goes to Galeazzo’s ancestor, Ottone Visconti. Other notable figures in the Visconti family include Matteo I (1294-1302), Luchino I (1339-1349) and Bernabò (1354-1385). Prior to his rule over Milan, Galeazzo II was briefly exiled by one of his uncles, Luchino. During his exile he stayed in Savoy before eventually being invited to return to Milan
Milan
and share rule over the city with his relatives, Bernabò and Matteo II Visconti
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Petrarch
Francesco Petrarca (Italian: [franˈtʃesko peˈtrarka]; July 20, 1304 – July 20, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch (/ˈpiːtrɑːrk, ˈpɛ-/), was an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance
Renaissance
Italy, who was one of the earliest humanists. His rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Renaissance
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Joanna, Duchess Of Brabant
Joanna, Duchess of Brabant
Joanna, Duchess of Brabant
(24 June 1322 – 1 November 1406), also known as Jeanne, was a ruling Duchess of Brabant from 1355 until her death She was the heiress of Duke John III, and Marie d'Évreux.Contents1 Life 2 Ancestors 3 See also 4 NotesLife[edit] Joanna's first marriage, in 1334, was to William IV, Count of Holland (1307–1345), who subsequently died in battle and their only son William died young, thus foiling the project of unifying their territories. Her second marriage was to Wenceslaus of Luxemburg
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Benefice
A benefice /ˈbɛnɪfɪs/ is a reward received in exchange for services rendered and as a retainer for future services. The Roman Empire used the Latin
Latin
term beneficium as a benefit to an individual from the Empire for services rendered. Its use was adopted by the Western Church
Western Church
in the Carolingian
Carolingian
Era as a benefit bestowed by the crown or church officials. A benefice specifically from a church is called a precaria (pl. precariae) such as a stipend and one from a monarch or nobleman is usually called a fief
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Estinnes
Estinnes
Estinnes
is a Belgian municipality located in the Walloon province of Hainaut
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Binche
Binche
Binche
(French pronunciation: ​[bɛ̃ʃ]; Walloon: Bince) is a Walloon city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut.[2] On January 1, 2006, Binche
Binche
had a total population of 32,409. The total area is 60.66 km² which gives a population density of 534 inhabitants per km². Since 1977, the municipality of Binche
Binche
has gathered the town of Binche
Binche
itself with seven old municipalities : Bray, Buvrinnes, Epinois, Leval-Trahegnies, Péronnes-lez-Binche, Ressaix and Waudrez. The motto of the city is "Plus Oultre" (meaning "Further" in Old French), which was the motto of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who in 1545 gave the medieval Castle of Binche
Binche
to his sister, Queen Mary of Hungary
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Chivalry
Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed[when?] by chivalrous social codes.[1][better source needed] The ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature, especially the Matter of Britain and Matter of France, the former based on Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia Regum Britanniae
which introduced the legend of King Arthur, which was written in the 1130s.[2] The code of chivalry that developed in medieval Europe had its roots in earlier centuries
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Illuminated Manuscript
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations. In the strictest definition, the term refers only to manuscripts decorated with gold or silver; but in both common usage and modern scholarship, the term refers to any decorated or illustrated manuscript from Western traditions. Comparable Far Eastern and Mesoamerican works are described as painted. Islamic manuscripts may be referred to as illuminated, illustrated or painted, though using essentially the same techniques as Western works. This article covers the technical, social and economic history of the subject; for an art-historical account, see miniature. The earliest surviving substantive illuminated manuscripts are from the period 400 to 600, produced in the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths
Kingdom of the Ostrogoths
and the Eastern Roman Empire
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Wales
Wales
Wales
(/ˈweɪlz/ ( listen); Welsh: Cymru [ˈkəmri] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the island of Great Britain.[8] It is bordered by England
England
to the east, the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon
Snowdon
(Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit
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Bruges
Bruges
Bruges
(/bruːʒ/; Dutch: Brugge [ˈbrʏɣə]; French: Bruges [bʁyːʒ]) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region
Flemish Region
of Belgium, in the northwest of the country. The area of the whole city amounts to more than 13,840 hectares, including 1,075 hectares off the coast, at Zeebrugge
Zeebrugge
(from Brugge aan zee[2] meaning " Bruges
Bruges
by the Sea"[3]). The historic city centre is a prominent World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
of UNESCO. It is oval and about 430 hectares in size. The city's total population is 117,073 (1 January 2008),[4] of whom around 20,000 live in the city centre
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Loiset Lyédet
Loyset Liédet
Loyset Liédet
(1420- after 1479, or after 1484), was an early Netherlandish miniaturist and illuminator, running a workshop which may have been of some size. Although he was very successful, and patronized by the leading collectors of his day, his work does not attain the standards of his finest Flemish contemporaries, with whom he often collaborated on large commissions. Biography[edit] Liédet was a prolific artist coming from Hesdin
Hesdin
in Artois. Between 1454 and 1460 he worked in Hesdin
Hesdin
where he produced 55 thumbnails for La Fleur des Histoires by Jean Mansel, commissioned by Philip the Good of the House of Valois-Burgundy. He also did some work for Charles the Bold. In his early work, he was influenced by Simon Marmion. After 1467 he was found in Bruges, where he was a member of the Guild of Saint Luke listed as an illuminator
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Foliot (timepiece)
The verge (or crown wheel) escapement is the earliest known type of mechanical escapement, the mechanism in a mechanical clock that controls its rate by allowing the gear train to advance at regular intervals or 'ticks'. Its origin is unknown. Verge escapements were used from the 14th century until the mid 19th century in clocks and pocketwatches. The name verge comes from the Latin virga, meaning stick or rod.[1] Its invention is important in the history of technology, because it made possible the development of all-mechanical clocks
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