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Friedrich Martens
Friedrich Fromhold Martens, or Friedrich Fromhold von Martens,[1] also known as Fyodor Fyodorovich Martens (Фёдор Фёдорович Мартенс) in Russian and Frédéric Frommhold (de) Martens in French (27 August [O.S. 15 August] 1845 – 19 June [O.S. 6 June] 1909) was a diplomat and jurist in service of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
who made important contributions to the science of international law. He represented Russia at the Hague Peace Conferences (during which he drafted the Martens Clause) and helped to settle the first cases of international arbitration, notably the dispute between France and the United Kingdom over Newfoundland
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Old Style And New Style Dates
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day
Lady Day
(25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in favour of the Gregorian calendar.[2][3][4] Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries
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University Of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582,[1] is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world
English-speaking world
and one of Scotland's ancient universities. The university is deeply embedded in the fabric of the city of Edinburgh, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university.[5] The University of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
was ranked 19th in the world by the 2016–17 QS rankings.[6] It is now ranked 23rd in the world according to 2018 QS Rankings.[7] It is ranked as the 6th best university in Europe by the U.S
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The Hague
The Hague
The Hague
(/ðə ˈheɪɡ/; Dutch: Den Haag, pronounced [dɛn ˈɦaːx] ( listen), short for 's-Gravenhage; [ˈsxraːvə(n)ˌɦaːɣə] ( listen)) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and the capital of the province of South Holland. With a metropolitan population of more than 1 million, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and Rotterdam. The Rotterdam– The Hague
The Hague
metropolitan area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country
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Venezuela
Coordinates: 7°N 65°W / 7°N 65°W / 7; -65Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela[a]República Bolivariana de Venezuela  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: Dios y Federación (English: "God and Federation")Anthem: Gloria al Bravo Pueblo (English: "Glory to the Brave People")Capital and largest city Caracas 10°30′N 66°55′W / 10.500°N 66.917°W / 10.500; -66.917Official languages SpanishbRecognized regional languages Indigenous languagesEthnic groups (2011[1])51.6% Mestizo 43.6% White 3.6% Black / Afrodescendant 1.2% Amerindians
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British Guiana
Other languages Guyanese Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu) Chinese Yoruba Portuguese DutchGovernment ColonyHistorical era New Imperialism •  Conquered 1796 •  Anglo-Dutch Treaty 13 August 1814 •  Single colony 1831 •  New constitution 1928 •  Independence 26 May 1966Area •  1924 231,804 km2 (89,500 sq mi)Population •  1924 est. 307,391      Density 1/km2 (3/sq mi)Currency Spanish dollar
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Plenipotentiary
The word plenipotentiary (from the Latin
Latin
plenus "full" and potens "powerful") has two meanings. As a noun, it refers to a person who has "full powers". In particular, the term commonly refers to a diplomat fully authorized to represent a government as a prerogative (e.g., ambassador). As an adjective, plenipotentiary refers to something—an edict, assignment, etc.—that confers "full powers".[1]Contents1 Diplomats 2 Administration2.1 Colonial era 2.2 Pre-World War II Europe 2.3 Nazi Germany 2.4 In Africa 2.5 Since 19452.5.1 South Africa 2.5.2 Russia3 Translation 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDiplomats[edit] Before the era of rapid international transport or essentially instantaneous communication (such as telegraph in the mid-19th century and then radio), diplomatic mission chiefs were granted full (plenipotentiary) powers to represent their government in negotiations with their host nation
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Maritime Law
Admiralty
Admiralty
law or maritime law is a body of law that governs nautical issues and private maritime disputes. Admiralty
Admiralty
law consists of both domestic law on maritime activities, and private international law governing the relationships between private parties operating or using ocean-going ships. While each legal jurisdiction usually has its own legislation governing maritime matters, the international nature of the topic and the need for uniformity has, since 1900, led to considerable international maritime law developments, including numerous multilateral treaties.[1] Matters dealt by admiralty law include marine commerce, marine navigation, salvage, maritime pollution, seafarers’ rights, and the carriage by sea of both passengers and goods. Admiralty
Admiralty
law also covers land-based commercial activities that are maritime in character, such as marine insurance
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Prize Court
A prize court is a court (or even a single individual, such as an ambassador or consul) authorized to consider whether prizes have been lawfully captured, typically whether a ship has been lawfully captured or seized in time of war or under the terms of the seizing ship's letters of marque and reprisal. A prize court may order the sale or destruction of the seized ship, and the distribution of any proceeds to the captain and crew of the seizing ship. A prize court may also order the return of a seized ship to its owners if the seizure was unlawful, such as if seized from a country which had proclaimed its neutrality. History/jurisdiction in various countries[edit] Prize courts were common in the 17th through 19th centuries, during times of American or European naval warfare
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University Of Oxford
Coordinates: 51°45′40″N 1°15′12″W / 51.7611°N 1.2534°W / 51.7611; -1.2534University of OxfordCoat of armsLatin: Universitas OxoniensisMotto Dominus Illuminatio Mea (Latin)Motto in English"The Lord is my Light"Established c. 1096; 922 years ago (1096)[1]Endowment £5.069 billion (inc
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University Of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge
Cambridge
(informally Cambridge
Cambridge
University)[note 1] is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, England. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge
Cambridge
is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university.[8] The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
after a dispute with the townspeople.[9] The two medieval universities share many common features and are often referred to jointly as "Oxbridge"
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Yale
Yale University
Yale University
is an American private Ivy League
Ivy League
research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States
United States
and one of the nine Colonial Colleges
Colonial Colleges
chartered before the American Revolution.[6] Chartered by Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy in Saybrook Colony
Saybrook Colony
to educate Congregational ministers. It moved to New Haven
New Haven
in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College
Yale College
in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire
Empire
(Russian: Российская Империя) or Russia
Russia
was an empire that existed across Eurasia
Eurasia
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.[6] The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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LL.D.
Legum Doctor (Latin: "teacher of the laws") (LL.D.; Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Laws
in English) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law, or an honorary doctorate, depending on the jurisdiction. The double "L" in the abbreviation refers to the early practice in the University of Cambridge to teach both canon law and civil law (Doctor of both laws), with the double "L" itself indicating the plural. This contrasts with the practice of the University of Oxford, where the degree that survived from the Middle Ages is the DCL or Doctor of Civil Law (only).[1]Contents1 Canada 2 European and Commonwealth usage 3 Germany 4 Malta 5 South Africa 6 United Kingdom 7 United States 8 See also 9 ReferencesCanada[edit] Most Canadian universities that award the degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) award it only as an honorary degree, but typically when awarded by a law school, it is an earned degree
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Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize (Swedish: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901,[3] it has been awarded annually (with some exceptions) to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".[4] As per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year
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