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French Academy
The Académie française
Académie française
(French pronunciation: ​[akademi fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language. The Académie was officially established in 1635 by Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister to King Louis XIII.[1] Suppressed in 1793 during the French Revolution, it was restored as a division of the Institut de France
France
in 1803 by Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte.[1] It is the oldest of the five académies of the institute. The Académie consists of forty members, known informally as les immortels (the immortals).[2] New members are elected by the members of the Académie itself. Academicians hold office for life, but they may resign or be dismissed for misconduct
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Léopold Sédar Senghor
Léopold Sédar Senghor
Léopold Sédar Senghor
(9 October 1906 – 20 December 2001) was a Senegalese poet, politician, and cultural theorist who for two decades served as the first president of Senegal
Senegal
(1960–80). Ideologically an African socialist, he was associated with the Négritude movement. He was the founder of the Senegalese Democratic Bloc
Senegalese Democratic Bloc
party. Senghor was the first African elected as a member of the Académie française
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Eulogy
A eulogy (from εὐλογία, eulogia, Classical Greek, eu for "well" or "true", logia for "words" or "text", together for "praise") is a speech or writing in praise of a person(s) or thing(s), especially one who recently died or retired or as a term of endearment.[1][2][3] Eulogies may be given as part of funeral services. They take place in a funeral home during or after a wake. However, some denominations either discourage or do not permit eulogies at services to maintain respect for traditions. Eulogies can also praise people who are still alive. This normally takes place on special occasions like birthdays, office parties, retirement celebrations, etc. Eulogies should not be confused with elegies, which are poems written in tribute to the dead; nor with obituaries, which are published biographies recounting the lives of those who have recently died; nor with obsequies, which refer generally to the rituals surrounding funerals
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Pierre Séguier
Pierre Séguier
Pierre Séguier
(French: [pjɛʁ seɡje]; 28 May 1588 – 28 January 1672) was a French statesman, chancellor of France from 1635.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early years 1.2 Career2 Culture 3 ReferencesBiography[edit] Early years[edit] Séguier was born in Paris
Paris
to a prominent legal family originating in Quercy. His grandfather, Pierre Séguier
Pierre Séguier
(1504–1580), was président à mortier in the parlement of Paris
Paris
from 1554 to 1576, and the chancellor's father, Jean Séguier, a seigneur d'Autry, was civil lieutenant of Paris
Paris
at the time of his death in 1596. Pierre was brought up by his uncle, Antoine Séguier, president and mortier in the parlement, and became master of requests in 1620. From 1621 to 1624 he was intendant of Guyenne, where he became closely allied with the duc d'Épernon
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Chancellor Of France
In France, under the Ancien Régime, the officer of state responsible for the judiciary was the Chancellor of France
Chancellor of France
(French: Chancelier de France). The Chancellor was responsible for seeing that royal decrees were enrolled and registered by the sundry parlements, provincial appellate courts. However, since the Chancellor was appointed for life, and might fall from favour, or be too ill to carry out his duties, his duties would occasionally fall to his deputy, the Keeper of the Seals of France (French: Garde des sceaux de France). The last Chancellor died in 1790, by which time the French Revolution was well underway, and the position was left vacant. Instead, in 1791, the Chancellor's portfolio and responsibilities were assigned to the Keeper of the Seals who was accordingly given the additional title of Minister of Justice under the Revolutionary government. The modern Minister of Justice is ceremonially known by both titles
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Collège Des Quatre-Nations
The Collège des Quatre-Nations
Collège des Quatre-Nations
(" College
College
of the Four Nations"), also known as the Collège Mazarin after its founder, was one of the colleges of the historic University of Paris. It was founded through a bequest by the Cardinal Mazarin. At his death in 1661, he also bequeathed his library, the Bibliothèque Mazarine, which he had opened to scholars since 1643, to the Collège des Quatre-Nations.Contents1 Name and composition of the college 2 Design and construction 3 Notable students 4 Later history 5 Notes 6 Bibliography 7 External linksName and composition of the college[edit] The name of the college alludes to the four nations of students at the medieval Parisian university
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Motto
Heraldry
Heraldry
portalv t eA motto (derived from the Latin
Latin
muttum, 'mutter', by way of Italian motto, 'word', 'sentence')[1][2][3] is a maxim; a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of an individual, family, social group or organization.[2][3] Mottos are usually not expressed verbally,[clarification needed] unlike slogans, but are expressed in writing and usually stem from long traditions of social foundations, or also from significant events, such as a civil war or a revolution. A motto may be in any language, but Latin
Latin
has been widely used, especially in the Western world.Contents1 Heraldry 2 Literature 3 See also 4 ReferencesHeraldry[edit] In heraldry, a motto is often found below the shield in a banderole; this placement stems from the Middle Ages, in which the vast majority of nobles possessed a coat of arms and a motto
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Quorum
A quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative assembly (a body that uses parliamentary procedure, such as a legislature) necessary to conduct the business of that group
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Paul Morand
Paul Morand
Paul Morand
(March 13, 1888 – July 24, 1976) was a French author whose short stories and novellas were lauded for their style, wit and descriptive power. His most productive literary period was the interwar period of the 1920s and 1930s. He was much admired by the upper echelons of society and the artistic avant-garde who made him a cult favorite. He has been categorized as an early Modernist
Modernist
and Imagist. Morand was a graduate of the Paris Institute of Political Studies, preparing him for a diplomatic career, and also attended Oxford University. A member of the upper class and married into wealth, he held various diplomatic posts and traveled widely. He was typical of those in his social group who enjoyed lives of privilege and entitlement, adhering to the inevitability and desirability of class distinction. Morand espoused a reflexive adherence to racial, ethnic and anti-Semitic ideologies
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Charles De Gaulle
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (French: [ʃaʁl də ɡol] ( listen); 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance
French Resistance
against Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in World War II
World War II
and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France. In 1958, he came out of retirement when appointed Prime Minister of France
Prime Minister of France
by President René Coty. He was asked to rewrite the Constitution of France
France
and founded the Fifth Republic after approval by referendum. He was elected President of France
President of France
later that year, a position he was reelected to in 1965 and held until his resignation in 1969. He twice served as ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra
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Élysée
The Élysée Palace
Élysée Palace
(French: Palais de l'Élysée; pronounced [pa.lɛ d(ə) le.li.ze]) is the official residence of the President of France. Completed in 1722, it was initially built for Henri Louis de La Tour d'Auvergne. It was used as the office of the French President for the first time in 1848. The current building contains the office of the President and the meeting place of the Council of Ministers. It is located near the Champs-Élysées
Champs-Élysées
in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, the name Élysée deriving from Elysian Fields, the place of the blessed dead in Greek mythology
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Raymond Poincaré
Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré (French pronunciation: ​[ʁɛmɔ̃ pwɛ̃kaʁe]; 20 August 1860 – 15 October 1934) was a French statesman who served three times as 58th Prime Minister of France, and as President of France
President of France
from 1913 to 1920. He was a conservative leader, primarily committed to political and social stability.[1] Trained in law, Poincaré was elected as a Deputy in 1887 and served in the cabinets of Dupuy and Ribot. In 1902, he co-founded the Democratic Republican Alliance, the most important centre-right party under the Third Republic, becoming Prime Minister in 1912 and President in 1913. He was noted for his strongly anti-German attitudes, and twice visited Russia
Russia
to maintain strategic ties
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Georges De Porto-Riche
Georges de Porto-Riche
Georges de Porto-Riche
(20 May 1849, Bordeaux, Gironde
Gironde
– 5 September 1930, Paris) was a French dramatist and novelist.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 Bibliography 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] At the age of twenty, his pieces in verse began to be produced at the Parisian theatres; he also wrote some books of verse which met with a favorable reception, but these early works were not reprinted. In Germaine, the passionate and exacting heroine of Amoureuse, Mme Réjane found one of her best parts. In 1898 he published Théâtre d'amour, which contained four of his most celebrated pieces: La Chance de Françoise, L'Infidèle, Amoureuse, and Le Passé. The title given to this collection indicates the difference between the plays of Porto-Riche, which focus on human emotion and psychological drama, and the political or sociological pieces of many of his contemporaries
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Hélène Carrère D'Encausse
Hélène Carrère d'Encausse
Hélène Carrère d'Encausse
(born Hélène Zourabichvili; 6 July 1929) is a French politician historian of Georgian origin, specializing in Russian history
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Georges Clemenceau
Georges Benjamin Clemenceau[1] (French pronunciation: ​[ʒɔʁʒ bɛ̃ʒamɛ̃ klemɑ̃so];[2] 28 September 1841 – 24 November 1929) was a French politician, physician, and journalist who was Prime Minister of France
Prime Minister of France
during the First World War. A leader of the Radical Party, he played a central role in the politics of the French Third Republic. Clemenceau was first Prime Minister from 1906 to 1909, and then again from 1917 to 1920. In favour of a total victory over the German Empire, he militated for the restitution of Alsace-Lorraine
Alsace-Lorraine
to France. He was one of the principal architects of the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
at the Paris
Paris
Peace Conference of 1919
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