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Free-space Optical Communication
FREE-SPACE OPTICAL COMMUNICATION (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking . "Free space" means air, outer space, vacuum, or something similar. This contrasts with using solids such as optical fiber cable or an optical transmission line
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Carl Zeiss AG
CARL ZEISS (German pronunciation: ), branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems , industrial measurements and medical devices, founded in Jena
Jena
, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
. Together with Ernst Abbe
Ernst Abbe
(joined 1866) and Otto Schott (joined 1884) they built a base for modern optics and manufacturing. There are currently two parts of the company, Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG located in Oberkochen
Oberkochen
with important subsidiaries in Aalen , Göttingen
Göttingen
and Munich
Munich
, and Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
GmbH
GmbH
located in Jena. Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG is the premier company of the ZEISS GRUPPE, one of the two large divisions of the CARL-ZEISS-STIFTUNG
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Atlantic Wall
The ATLANTIC WALL (German: Atlantikwall) was an extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia
Scandinavia
as a defence against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
during World War II
World War II
. The manning and operation of the Atlantic Wall
Atlantic Wall
was administratively overseen by the German Army , with some support from Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
ground forces. The German Navy maintained a separate coastal defense network, organized into a number of sea defense zones . Hitler ordered the construction of the fortifications in 1942. Almost a million French workers were drafted to build it
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Remote Control
In electronics , a REMOTE CONTROL is a component of an electronic device used to operate the device wirelessly from a distance. For example, in consumer electronics , a remote control can be used to operate devices such as a television set , DVD player , or other home appliance, from a short distance. A remote control is primarily a convenience feature for the user, and can allow operation of devices that are out of convenient reach for direct operation of controls. In some cases, remote controls allow a person to operate a device that they otherwise would not be able to reach, as when a garage door opener is triggered from outside or when a Digital Light Processing projector that is mounted on a high ceiling is controlled by a person from the floor level
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Monocular
A MONOCULAR is a modified refracting telescope used to magnify the images of distant objects by passing light through a series of lenses and usually prisms , the application of prisms resulting in a lightweight , compact telescope. Volume and weight are less than half those of binoculars of similar optical properties, making a monocular easy to carry, and also proportionally less expensive. Monoculars produce 2-dimensional images, while binoculars add perception of depth (3 dimensions), assuming one has normal binocular vision. Monoculars are ideally suited to those with vision in only one eye, or where compactness and low weight are important (e.g. hiking). However, monoculars are sometimes preferred where difficulties occur using both eyes through binoculars because of significant eye variation or poor vision in one eye
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Trench Warfare
TRENCH WARFARE is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of trenches , in which troops are significantly protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery. The most famous use of trench warfare is the Western Front in World War
War
I . It has become a byword for stalemate, attrition , sieges and futility in conflict. Trench warfare occurred when a revolution in firepower was not matched by similar advances in mobility , resulting in a grueling form of warfare in which the defender held the advantage. On the Western Front in 1914–18, both sides constructed elaborate trench and dugout systems opposing each other along a front , protected from assault by barbed wire , mines , and other obstacles. The area between opposing trench lines (known as "no man\'s land ") was fully exposed to artillery fire from both sides
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Herero And Namaqua Genocide
The HERERO AND NAMA GENOCIDE was a campaign of racial extermination and collective punishment that the German Empire
German Empire
undertook in German South West Africa
South West Africa
(modern-day Namibia
Namibia
) against the Herero , Nama and San people
San people
. It is considered the first genocide of the 20th century. It took place between 1904 and 1907 during the Herero Wars
Herero Wars
. In January 1904, the Herero people, led by Samuel Maharero
Samuel Maharero
and Nama Captain Hendrik Witbooi , rebelled against German colonial rule . In August, German General Lothar von Trotha
Lothar von Trotha
defeated the Herero in the Battle of Waterberg and drove them into the desert of Omaheke , where most of them died of dehydration
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German South-West Africa
GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA (German: Deutsch-Südwestafrika, DSWA) was a colony of the German Empire
German Empire
from 1884 until 1915. With an area of 835,100 km², it was one and a half times the size of the mainland German Empire
German Empire
in Europe at the time. The colony had a population of around 2,600 Germans. In 1915, during the First World War
First World War
, German South West Africa
South West Africa
was invaded by the Western Allies in the form of South African and British forces. After the war its administration was taken over by the Union of South Africa (part of the British Empire
British Empire
) and the territory was administered as South West Africa
South West Africa
under a League of Nations
League of Nations
mandate . It became independent as Namibia
Namibia
in 1990
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Namibia
Coordinates : 22°S 17°E / 22°S 17°E / -22; 17 Republic
Republic
of Namibia
Namibia
* Names in the national languages: * Republiek van Namibië (
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Infrared
INFRARED RADIATION, or simply INFRARED or IR, is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light , and is therefore invisible, although it is sometimes loosely called INFRARED LIGHT. It extends from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz ), to 1000000 nm (300 GHz
GHz
) (although people can see infrared up to at least 1050 nm in experiments ). Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared. Like all EMR, IR carries radiant energy , and behaves both like a wave and like its quantum particle, the photon . Infrared
Infrared
was discovered in 1800 by astronomer Sir William Herschel
William Herschel
, who discovered a type of invisible radiation in the spectrum lower in energy than red light, by means of its effect on a thermometer
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Light-emitting Diode
A LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source . It is a p–n junction diode that emits light when activated. When a suitable voltage is applied to the leads, electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons . This effect is called electroluminescence , and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are typically small (less than 1 mm2) and integrated optical components may be used to shape the radiation pattern . Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared light. Infrared LEDs are still frequently used as transmitting elements in remote-control circuits, such as those in remote controls for a wide variety of consumer electronics
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Japan
Coordinates : 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136 Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku Flag Imperial Seal ANTHEM: * " Kimigayo " * 君が代 "His Imperial Majesty's Reign" GOVERNMENT SEAL OF JAPAN * * Go-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐) Area controlled by Japan
Japan
shown in green—claimed, but uncontrolled shown in light green Capital and largest city
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Local Area Network
A LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building and has its network equipment and interconnects locally managed. By contrast, a wide area network (WAN) not only covers a larger geographic distance, but also generally involves leased telecommunication circuits or Internet links. An even greater contrast is the Internet
Internet
, which is a system of globally connected business and personal computers. Ethernet
Ethernet
and Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
are the two most common transmission technologies in use for local area networks. Historical technologies include ARCNET , Token ring , and AppleTalk
AppleTalk

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Institute Of Electrical And Electronics Engineers
The INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey . It was formed in 1963 from the amalgamation of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the Institute of Radio Engineers . Today, it is the world's largest association of technical professionals with more than 420,000 members in over 160 countries around the world. Its objectives are the educational and technical advancement of electrical and electronic engineering , telecommunications , computer engineering and allied disciplines
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Gnu Free Documentation License
The GNU
GNU
FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE ( GNU
GNU
FDL or simply GFDL) is a copyleft license for free documentation, designed by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU Project
GNU Project
. It is similar to the GNU General Public License
License
, giving readers the rights to copy, redistribute, and modify (only when without "invariant sections" restrictions) a work and requires all copies and derivatives to be available under the same license. Copies may also be sold commercially, but, if produced in larger quantities (greater than 100), the original document or source code must be made available to the work's recipient. The GFDL was designed for manuals , textbooks, other reference and instructional materials, and documentation which often accompanies GNU software. However, it can be used for any text-based work, regardless of subject matter
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MESSENGER
DISCOVERY PROGRAM ← CONTOUR
CONTOUR
Deep Impact → MESSENGER
MESSENGER
(whose backronym is MERCURY SURFACE, SPACE ENVIRONMENT, GEOCHEMISTRY, AND RANGING, and which is a reference to the Roman mythological messenger, Mercury ) was a NASA
NASA
robotic spacecraft that orbited the planet Mercury between 2011 and 2015. The spacecraft was launched aboard a Delta II
Delta II
rocket in August 2004 to study Mercury's chemical composition, geology , and magnetic field . The instruments carried by MESSENGER
MESSENGER
were used on a complex series of flybys – the spacecraft flew by Earth
Earth
once, Venus
Venus
twice, and Mercury itself three times, allowing it to decelerate relative to Mercury using minimal fuel
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