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Free-space Optical Communication
Free-space optical communication
Free-space optical communication
(FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking. "Free space" means air, outer space, vacuum, or something similar. This contrasts with using solids such as optical fiber cable. The technology is useful where the physical connections are impractical due to high costs or other considerations.Contents1 History 2 Usage and technologies2.1 Commercial products 2.2 Useful distances 2.3 Extending the useful distance 2.4 Extraterrestrial3 LEDs 4 Engineering details4.1 Technical advantages 4.2 Range limiting factors5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit]A photophone receiver and headset, one half of Bell and Tainter's optical telecommunication system of 1880Optical communications, in various forms, have been used for thousands of years
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Monocular
A monocular is a modified refracting telescope used to magnify the images of distant objects by passing light through a series of lenses and usually prisms, the application of prisms resulting in a lightweight, compact telescope. Volume and weight are less than half those of binoculars of similar optical properties, making a monocular easy to carry, and also proportionally less expensive. Monoculars produce 2-dimensional images, while binoculars add perception of depth (3 dimensions), assuming one has normal binocular vision. Monoculars are ideally suited to those with vision in only one eye, or where compactness and low weight are important (e.g
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Light-emitting Diode
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction diode that emits light when activated.[5] When a suitable current is applied to the leads,[6][7] electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. LEDs
LEDs
are typically small (less than 1 mm2) and integrated optical components may be used to shape the radiation pattern.[8] Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs
LEDs
emitted low-intensity infrared light.[9] Infrared
Infrared
LEDs
LEDs
are still frequently used as transmitting elements in remote-control circuits, such as those in remote controls for a wide variety of consumer electronics
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Namibia
Coordinates: 22°S 17°E / 22°S 17°E / -22; 17 Republic
Republic
of Namibia8 National language namesRepubliek van Namibië  (Afrikaans)[1] Republik Namibia  (German)[2] Namibiab Republiki dib  (Nama)[3] Republika yaNamibia  (Herero)[4] Orepublika yaNamibia  (Kwanyama)[5] Republika zaNamibia  (Kwangali)[6] Repaboleki ya Namibia  (Tswana)[7] Namibia
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Trench Warfare
Trench warfare
Trench warfare
is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery. The most famous use of trench warfare is the Western Front in World War
War
I. It has become a byword for stalemate, attrition, sieges and futility in conflict.[1] Trench warfare
Trench warfare
occurred when a revolution in firepower was not matched by similar advances in mobility, resulting in a grueling form of warfare in which the defender held the advantage.[2] On the Western Front in 1914–1918, both sides constructed elaborate trench and dugout systems opposing each other along a front, protected from assault by barbed wire, mines, and other obstacles. The area between opposing trench lines (known as "no man's land") was fully exposed to artillery fire from both sides
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Atlantic Wall
The Atlantic Wall
Atlantic Wall
(German: Atlantikwall) was an extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia
Scandinavia
as a defence against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
during World War II. The manning and operation of the Atlantic Wall
Atlantic Wall
was administratively overseen by the German Army, with some support from Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
ground forces. The German Navy maintained a separate coastal defence network, organised into a number of sea defence zones.[1] Hitler ordered the construction of the fortifications in 1942. Almost a million French workers were drafted to build it
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Remote Control
In electronics, a remote control is a component of an electronic device used to operate the device from a distance, usually wirelessly. For example, in consumer electronics, a remote control can be used to operate devices such as a television set, DVD
DVD
player, or other home appliance, from a short distance. A remote control is primarily a convenience feature for the user, and can allow operation of devices that are out of convenient reach for direct operation of controls
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Infrared
Infrared
Infrared
radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions [1][2][3][4]). It is sometimes called infrared light. IR wavelengths extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz), to 1 millimeter (300 GHz)[5] Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared
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Uptime
Uptime
Uptime
is a measure of the time a machine, typically a computer, has been working and available
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Herero And Namaqua Genocide
European colonization of the AmericasDzungar genocide, 1750s Manifest DestinyIndian Removal, 1830s California Genocide, 1848–1873Circassian genocide, 1860s Selk'nam genocide, 1890s–1900s Herero and Namaqua genocide, 1904–1907 Greek genocide, 1914–1923 Assyrian genocide, 1914–1925 Armenian Genocide, 1915–1923 Libyan Genocide, 1923–1932Soviet genocide Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
in the Soviet UnionSoviet famine of 1932–33Holodomor, 1931–1933 Kazakhstan, 1930–1933Mass Deportations during World War IIKalmyks, 1943 Chechens and Ingush, 1944 Crimean Tatars, 1944Nazi Holoc
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Science (magazine)
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine,[1] is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science[2][3] (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.[4] It was first published in 1880, is currently circulated weekly and has a print subscriber base of around 130,000. Because institutional subscriptions and online access serve a larger audience, its estimated readership is 570,400 people.[5] The major focus of the journal is publishing important original scientific research and research reviews, but Science also publishes science-related news, opinions on science policy and other matters of interest to scientists and others who are concerned with the wide implications of science and technology. Unlike most scientific journals, which focus on a specific field, Science and its rival Nature cover the full range of scientific disciplines
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European Data Relay System
The European Data Relay System
European Data Relay System
(EDRS) system is a European constellation of state of the art GEO satellites that relay information and data between satellites, spacecraft, UAVs, and ground stations. The designers intend the system to provide almost full-time communication, even with satellites in low Earth orbit that often have reduced visibility from ground stations. It makes on-demand data available to, for example, rescue workers who want near-real-time satellite data of a crisis region. The system has been developed as part of the ARTES 7 programme and is intended to be an independent, European satellite system that reduces time delays in the transmission of large quantities of data
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MESSENGER
A messenger or courier is a person or thing that carries a message. Messenger or Messengers may also refer to:Contents1 People 2 Science and technology2.1 Biology and chemistry 2.2 Electronics and computing3 Transport 4 Literature 5 Periodicals 6 In film and television 7 In gaming 8 In music8.1 Groups 8.2 Albums 8.3 Songs9 Other uses 10 See alsoPeople[edit] Messenger (surname) Bicycle messenger, a bicyclist who transports packages through cities Messenger-at-arms, an officer of the Scottish Court of Session Messenger of the Cour
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GNU Free Documentation License
The GNU
GNU
Free Documentation License ( GNU
GNU
FDL or simply GFDL) is a copyleft license for free documentation, designed by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU
GNU
Project. It is similar to the GNU
GNU
General Public License, giving readers the rights to copy, redistribute, and modify (only when without "invariant sections" restrictions) a work and requires all copies and derivatives to be available under the same license. Copies may also be sold commercially, but, if produced in larger quantities (greater than 100), the original document or source code must be made available to the work's recipient. The GFDL was designed for manuals, textbooks, other reference and instructional materials, and documentation which often accompanies GNU software. However, it can be used for any text-based work, regardless of subject matter
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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