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Franz Wüllner
Franz Wüllner
Franz Wüllner
(28 January 1832 – 7 September 1902)[1] was a German composer and conductor. He led the premieres of Richard Wagner's operas Das Rheingold
Das Rheingold
and Die Walküre, but was much criticized by Wagner himself, who greatly preferred the more celebrated conductors Hans von Bülow
Hans von Bülow
and Hermann Levi. Biography[edit] Wüllner was born in Münster
Münster
and studied in his native place, and at Frankfurt, Berlin, Brussels, and Munich. Among his teachers was Anton Schindler, who styled himself Beethoven's amanuensis carrying on the true traditions of the master's style, a claim disputed by Beethoven's pupil Carl Czerny. In 1856 Wüllner became instructor in piano at the Munich Conservatory. He held the position of town musical director at Aix-la-Chapelle from 1858 to 1864
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Der Ring Des Nibelungen
Der Ring des Nibelungen
Der Ring des Nibelungen
(The Ring of the Nibelung), WWV 86, is a cycle of four German-language epic music dramas composed by Richard Wagner. The works are based loosely on characters from the Norse sagas and the Nibelungenlied. The composer termed the cycle a "Bühnenfestspiel" (stage festival play), structured in three days preceded by a Vorabend ("preliminary evening"). It is often referred to as the Ring Cycle, Wagner's Ring, or simply The Ring. Wagner wrote the libretto and music over the course of about twenty-six years, from 1848 to 1874
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Motet
In western music, a motet is a mainly vocal musical composition, of highly varied form and style, from the late medieval era to the present. The motet was one of the pre-eminent polyphonic forms of Renaissance music. According to Margaret Bent, "a piece of music in several parts with words" is as precise a definition of the motet as will serve from the 13th to the late 16th century and beyond.[1] The late 13th-century theorist Johannes de Grocheo believed that the motet was "not to be celebrated in the presence of common people, because they do not notice its subtlety, nor are they delighted in hearing it, but in the presence of the educated and of those who are seeking out subtleties in the arts".[2]Contents1 Etymology 2 Medieval
Medieval
examples2.1 Medieval
Medieval
composers3 Renaissance examples3.1 Renaissance composers4 Baroque examples4.1 J.S
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Chamber Music
Chamber music
Chamber music
is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or a large room. Most broadly, it includes any art music that is performed by a small number of performers, with one performer to a part (in contrast to orchestral music, in which each string part is played by a number of performers). However, by convention, it usually does not include solo instrument performances. Because of its intimate nature, chamber music has been described as "the music of friends".[1] For more than 100 years, chamber music was played primarily by amateur musicians in their homes, and even today, when chamber music performance has migrated from the home to the concert hall, many musicians, amateur and professional, still play chamber music for their own pleasure
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Saint-Saëns
Charles- Camille Saint-Saëns
Camille Saint-Saëns
(French: [ʃaʁl kamij sɛ̃sɑ̃s];[n 1] 9 October 1835 – 16 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor and pianist of the Romantic era. His best-known works include Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso (1863), the Second Piano Concerto (1868), the First Cello Concerto (1872), Danse macabre (1874), the opera Samson and Delilah (1877), the Third Violin Concerto (1880), the Third ("Organ") Symphony (1886) and The Carnival of the Animals
The Carnival of the Animals
(1886). Saint-Saëns was a musical prodigy, making his concert debut at the age of ten. After studying at the Paris Conservatoire
Paris Conservatoire
he followed a conventional career as a church organist, first at Saint-Merri, Paris and, from 1858, La Madeleine, the official church of the French Empire
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Carl Reinecke
Carl Reinecke
Carl Reinecke
(23 June 1824 – 10 March 1910) was a German composer, conductor, and pianist.Contents1 Biography 2 Selected works 3 Media 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links6.1 RecordingsBiography[edit] Reinecke was born in Altona; technically he was born a Dane, as until 1864 the town was under Danish rule. He studied with his father, Johann Peter Rudolph Reinecke, a music teacher. Carl began to compose at the age of seven, and his first public appearance as a pianist was when he was twelve years old. At the age of 19, he undertook his first concert tour in 1843, through Denmark
Denmark
and Sweden
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Composer
A composer ( Latin
Latin
compōnō; literally "one who puts together") is a musician who is an author of music in any form, including vocal music (for a singer or choir), instrumental music, electronic music, and music which combines multiple forms. A composer may create music in any musical music genre, including, for example, classical music, musical theatre, blues, folk music, jazz, and popular music
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Music Score Library Project
The International Music Score Library Project
International Music Score Library Project
(IMSLP), also known as the Petrucci Music Library after publisher Ottaviano Petrucci, is a subscription-based project for the creation of a virtual library of public-domain music scores. Since its launch on February 16, 2006, over 370,000 scores and 42,000 recordings for over 110,000 works by over 14,000 composers have been uploaded. Based on the wiki principle, the project uses Media Wiki
Wiki
software
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Braunfels
Braunfels is a town in the Lahn-Dill-Kreis in Hesse, Germany. It is located on the German Timber-Frame Road.Contents1 Geography1.1 Location 1.2 Neighbouring communities 1.3 Constituent communities2 History 3 Politics3.1 Town council 3.2 Coat of arms 3.3 Town partnerships4 Sightseeing4.1 Mediaeval Spectacle5 People 6 References 7 External linksGeography[edit] Location[edit] The climatic spa of Braunfels lies at a height of some 100 m above the Lahn valley
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Dresden
Dresden
Dresden
(German pronunciation: [ˈdʁeːsdn̩] ( listen); Czech: Drážďany, Polish: Drezno) is the capital city[2] and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city[3] of the Free State of Saxony
Saxony
in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the border with the Czech Republic. Dresden
Dresden
has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendor, and was once by personal union the family seat of Polish monarchs. The city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque and rococo city centre. The controversial American and British bombing of Dresden
Dresden
in World War II
World War II
towards the end of the war killed approximately 25,000 people, many of whom were civilians, and destroyed the entire city centre
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Mass (music)
The Mass (Latin: Missa), a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the invariable portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, and Lutheranism) to music. Most Masses are settings of the liturgy in Latin, the liturgical sacred language of the Catholic Church's Roman liturgy, but there are a significant number written in the languages of non-Catholic countries where vernacular worship has long been the norm. For example, there are many Masses (often called "Communion Services") written in English for the Church of England. Musical Masses take their name from the Catholic liturgy called "the Mass" as well. Masses can be a cappella, that is, without an independent accompaniment, or they can be accompanied by instrumental obbligatos up to and including a full orchestra
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Bayreuth Festival
The Bayreuth
Bayreuth
Festival (German: Bayreuther Festspiele) is a music festival held annually in Bayreuth, Germany, at which performances of operas by the 19th-century German composer Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
are presented. Wagner himself conceived and promoted the idea of a special festival to showcase his own works, in particular his monumental cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen
Der Ring des Nibelungen
and Parsifal. Performances take place in a specially designed theatre, the Bayreuth Festspielhaus. Wagner personally supervised the design and construction of the theatre, which contained many architectural innovations to accommodate the huge orchestras for which Wagner wrote as well as the composer's particular vision about the staging of his works
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Solfege
In music, solfège (/ˈsɒlfɛʒ/,[1] also US: /sɒlˈfɛʒ/, French: [sɔl.fɛʒ]) or solfeggio (/sɒlˈfɛdʒioʊ/, Italian: [solˈfeddʒo]), also called sol-fa, solfa, solfeo, among many names, is a music education method used to teach pitch and sight singing of Western music. Solfège
Solfège
is a form of solmization, and though the two terms are sometimes used interchangeably, the systems used in other music cultures such as swara, durar mufaṣṣalāt and Jianpu
Jianpu
are discussed in their respective articles. Syllables are assigned to the notes of the scale and enable the musician to audiate, or mentally hear, the pitches of a piece of music which he or she is seeing for the first time and then to sing them aloud. Through the Renaissance (and much later in some shapenote publications) various interlocking 4, 5 and 6-note systems were employed to cover the octave
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