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Franz Boas
Franz Uri Boas (/ˈfrɑːnz ˈboʊ.æz/; German: [ˈboːas]; July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942)[1] was a German-American[2] anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology".[3][4] His work is associated with the movement of anthropological historicism.[5] Studying in Germany, Boas was awarded a doctorate in 1881 in physics while also studying geography. He then participated in a geographical expedition to northern Canada, where he became fascinated with the culture and language of the Baffin Island
Baffin Island
Inuit. He went on to do field work with the indigenous cultures and languages of the Pacific Northwest. In 1887 he emigrated to the United States, where he first worked as a museum curator at the Smithsonian, and in 1899 became a professor of anthropology at Columbia University, where he remained for the rest of his career
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Ethnoarchaeology
Ethnoarchaeology is the ethnographic study of peoples for archaeological reasons, usually through the study of the material remains of a society (see David & Kramer 2001). Ethnoarchaeology aids archaeologists in reconstructing ancient lifeways by studying the material and non-material traditions of modern societies. Ethnoarchaeology also aids in the understanding of the way an object was made and the purpose of what it is being used for.[1] Archaeologists can then infer that ancient societies used the same techniques as their modern counterparts given a similar set of environmental circumstances. One good example of ethnoarchaeology is that of Brian Hayden (1987), whose team examined the manufacture of Mesoamerican
Mesoamerican
quern-stones, providing valuable insights into the manufacture of prehistoric quern-stones
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Forensic Anthropology
Forensic anthropology
Forensic anthropology
is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy,[1] in a legal setting. A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated or otherwise unrecognizable, as might happen in a plane crash. Forensic anthropologists are also instrumental to the investigation and documentation of genocide and mass graves. Along with forensic pathologists, forensic dentists, and homicide investigators, forensic anthropologists commonly testify in court as expert witnesses. Using physical markers present on a skeleton, a forensic anthropologist can potentially determine a victim's age, sex, stature, and ancestry
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Battlefield Archaeology
Battlefield archaeology is a sub-discipline of archaeology that began in North America with Dr. Douglas D. Scott's, National Park Service, metal detecting of Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument in 1983. It is not considered distinct from Military archaeology or Recceology
Recceology
(i.e., the recovery of surface finds and non-invasive site surveying). Battlefield archaeology also refers to the specific study of a particular archaeological horizon in which a military action occurred. This may include both 'bounded' battlefields where troop dispositions, numbers and the order of battle are known from textual records, and also from undocumented evidence of conflict. The discipline is distinct from military history in that it seeks to answer different questions, including the experiences of ordinary soldiers in wider political frameworks
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Biblical Archaeology
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t e Biblical archaeology
Biblical archaeology
involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible, be they from the Old Testament
Old Testament
(Tanakh) or from the New Testament, as well as the history and cosmogony of the Judeo-Christian religions. The principal location of interest is what is known in the relevant religions as the Holy Land, which from a western perspective is also called the Middle East
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Bioarchaeology
The term bioarchaeology was first coined by British archaeologist Grahame Clark
Grahame Clark
in 1972 as a reference to zooarchaeology, or the study of animal bones from archaeological sites. Redefined in 1977 by Jane Buikstra, bioarchaeology in the US now refers to the scientific study of human remains from archaeological sites, a discipline known in other countries as osteoarchaeology or palaeo-osteology. In England and other European countries, the term 'bioarchaeology' is borrowed to cover all biological remains from sites. Bioarchaeology was largely born from the practices of New Archaeology, which developed in the US in the 1970s as a reaction to a mainly cultural-historical approach to understanding the past. Proponents of New Archaeology
New Archaeology
advocated using processual methods to test hypotheses about the interaction between culture and biology, or a biocultural approach
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Environmental Archaeology
Environmental archaeology is a sub-field of archaeology and is the science of reconstructing the relationships between past societies and the environments they lived in.[1][2] The field represents an archaeological-palaeoecological approach to studying the palaeoenvironment through the methods of human palaeoecology. Reconstructing past environments and past peoples' relationships and interactions with the landscapes they inhabited provides archaeologists with insights into the origin and evolution of anthropogenic environments, and prehistoric adaptations and economic practices.[3] Environmental archaeology is commonly divided into three sub-fields:archaeobotany (the study of p
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Westphalia Province
The Province of Westphalia (German: Provinz Westfalen) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1815[1] to 1946.[2]Contents1 History 2 Economy 3 After World War II 4 Maps 5 Upper presidents 6 Land captains of Westphalia 7 ReferencesHistory[edit] Napoleon Bonaparte founded the Kingdom of Westphalia, which was a client state of the First French Empire from 1807 to 1813. This state shared only the name with the historical region, containing mostly Hessian and Eastphalian regions and only a relatively small part of the region of Westphalia. Although Prussia had long owned territory in Westphalia, King Frederick William III had preferred to incorporate the Kingdom of Saxony first. It was not until the Congress of Vienna in 1815 that the Province of Westphalia came into being
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Feminist Archaeology
Feminist archaeology employs a feminist perspective in interpreting past societies. It often focuses on gender, but also considers gender in tandem with other factors, such as sexuality, race, or class. Feminist archaeology has critiqued the uncritical application of modern, Western norms and values to past societies
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Maritime Archaeology
Maritime archaeology
Maritime archaeology
(also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline within archaeology as a whole that specifically studies human interaction with the sea,[1] lakes and rivers through the study of associated physical remains, be they vessels, shore side facilities, port-related structures, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes.[2] A specialty within maritime archaeology is nautical archaeology, which studies vessel construction and use.[3] As with archaeology as a whole, maritime archaeology can be practised within the historical, industrial, or prehistoric periods.[4] An associated discipline, and again one that lies within archaeology itself, is underwater archaeology, which studies the past through any submerged remains be they of maritime interest or not. An example from the prehistoric era would be the remains of submerged settlements or deposits now lying under water despite having been dry land when sea levels were lower
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Aerial Archaeology
Aerial archaeology
Aerial archaeology
is the study of archaeological remains by examining them from altitude.Contents1 Details 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDetails[edit] The advantages of gaining a good aerial view of the ground had been long appreciated by archaeologists as a high viewpoint permits a better appreciation of fine details and their relationships within the wider site context. Early investigators attempted to gain birdseye views of sites using hot air balloons, scaffolds or cameras attached to kites. Following the invention of the aeroplane and the military importance placed on aerial photography during the First and Second World Wars, archaeologists were able to more effectively use the technique to discover and record archaeological sites. Photographs may be taken either vertically, that is from directly overhead, or obliquely, meaning that they are taken at an angle
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Paleoethnobotany
Pal(a)eoethnobotany or Archaeobotany, "is the study of remains of plants cultivated or used by people in ancient times, which have survived in archaeological contexts."[1] Paleoethnobotany
Paleoethnobotany
is the archaeological sub-field that studies plant remains from archaeological sites. Basing on the recovery and identification of plant remains and the ecological and cultural information available for modern plants, the major research themes are the use of wild plants, the origins of agriculture and domestication, and the co-evolution of human-plant interactions.Contents1 Preservation 2 Recovery methods 3 Identification 4 Research 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksPreservation[edit] Plant
Plant
macrofossils are preserved through four main modes of preservation at archaeological sites
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Zooarchaeology
Zooarchaeology
Zooarchaeology
(or archaeozoology) is the study of faunal remains.[1] Faunal remains are the items left behind when an animal dies.[1] It includes: bones, shells, hair, chitin, scales, hides, proteins and DNA.[1] Of these items, bones and shells are the ones that occur most frequently at archaeological sites where faunal remains can be found.[1] Most of the time, most of the faunal remains do not survive.[1] They often decompose or break because of various circumstances.[1] This can cause difficulties in identifying the remains and
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Anthrozoology
Anthrozoology
Anthrozoology
(also known as human–non-human-animal studies, or HAS) is the subset of ethnobiology that deals with interactions between humans and other animals. It is an interdisciplinary field that overlaps with other disciplines including anthropology, ethnology, medicine, psychology, veterinary medicine and zoology
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Biocultural Anthropology
Biocultural anthropology can be defined in numerous ways. It is the scientific exploration of the relationships between human biology and culture.[1] "Instead of looking for the biology underlying biological roots of human behavior, biocultural anthropology attempts to understand how culture affects our biological capacities and limitations."[1]Contents1 History 2 Key research 3 Contemporary biocultural anthropology 4 Controversy 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Physical anthropologists throughout the first half of the 20th century viewed this relationship from a racial perspective; that is, from the assumption that typological human biological differences lead to cultural differences.[2] After World War II
World War II
the emphasis began to shift toward an effort to explore the role culture plays in shaping human biology
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Evolutionary Anthropology
Evolutionary anthropology
Evolutionary anthropology
is the interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behaviour and the relation between hominids and non-hominid primates. Evolutionary anthropology is based in natural science and social science
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