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Francysk Skaryna
Francysk Skaryna
Francysk Skaryna
or Francisk Skorina (pronounced [franˈt͡sɨsk skaˈrɨna]; Latin: Franciscus Scorina, Belarusian: Францыск (Францішак[1]) Скарына; Polish: Franciszek Skaryna; ca. 1490–before 29 January 1552) was a Belarusian humanist, physician, translator and one of the first book printers in Eastern Europe, laying the groundwork for the development of the Belarusian language.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Later life 3 Religion 4 Publishing activities 5 Books 6 Legacy 7 Francysk Skaryna
Francysk Skaryna
in modern art 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Skaryna was born into the family of a wealthy merchant in Polatsk, then a major trade and manufacturing center of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. His older brother, Ivan, was also a merchant. The brothers had a property, possibly ancestral, in Polatsk.[2] The exact date of Skaryna's birth is unknown
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Lviv
Lviv
Lviv
(Ukrainian: Львів [lʲʋiu̯] ( listen); Russian: Львов Lvov; Polish: Lwów[2] [lvuf] ( listen); German: Lemberg; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016. Lviv
Lviv
is one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine. Named in honor of Leo, the eldest son of Daniel, King of Ruthenia, it was the capital of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
(also called Kingdom of Rus')[3] from 1272 to 1349, when it was conquered by King Casimir III the Great
Casimir III the Great
who then became known as the King of Poland
Poland
and Rus'. From 1434, it was the regional capital of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland
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Sigismund August
Sigismund II Augustus (Polish: Zygmunt II August, Ruthenian: Żygimont II Awgust, Lithuanian: Žygimantas II Augustas, German: Sigismund II. August) (1 August 1520 – 7 July 1572) was the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the only son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548. Married three times, the last of the Jagiellons remained childless, and through the Union of Lublin introduced a free elective monarchy.Contents1 Royal titles 2 Biography 3 Patronage 4 Ancestry 5 Marriages 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External linksRoyal titles[edit]Royal titles, in Latin: "Sigismundus Augustus Dei gratia rex Poloniae, magnus dux Lithuaniae, nec non-terrarum Cracoviae, Sandomiriae, Siradiae, Lanciciae, Cuiaviae, Kiioviae, Dominus Hereditarium Russiae, Woliniae, Prussiae, Masoviae, Podlachiae, Culmensis, Elbingensis, Pomeraniae, Samogitiae, Livoniae etc
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Old Testament
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t ePart of a series onChristianityJesus Christ
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Bibles
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t eThe Bible
Bible
(from Koine Greek
Koine Greek
τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books")[1] is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews
Jews
and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans. Many different authors contributed to the Bible
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Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic, also known as Church Slavic[1], New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine. The language appears also in the services of the American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese and occasionally in the services of the Orthodox Church in America. It was also used by the Orthodox Churches in Romanian lands until the late 17th and early 18th centuries,[2] as well as by Roman Catholic Croats
Croats
in the Early Middle Ages
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Czech Language
Czech (/tʃɛk/; čeština Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛʃcɪna]), historically also Bohemian[6] (/boʊˈhiːmiən, bə-/;[7] lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language
West Slavic language
of the Czech–Slovak group.[6] Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree.[8] Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin[9] and German.[10] The Czech–Slovak group developed within West Slavic
West Slavic
in the high medieval period, and the standardization of Czech and Slovak within the Czech–Slovak dialect continuum emerged in the early modern period
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Minsk
Minsk
Minsk
(Belarusian: Мінск, pronounced [mʲinsk]; Russian: Минск, [mʲinsk]) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers. As the national capital, Minsk
Minsk
has a special administrative status in Belarus
Belarus
and is the administrative centre of Minsk Region
Minsk Region
(voblast) and Minsk
Minsk
raion (district). In 2013, it had a population of 2,002,600. Minsk
Minsk
is the administrative capital of the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) and seat of the Executive Secretary. The earliest historical references to Minsk
Minsk
date to the 11th century (1067), when it was noted as a provincial city within the Principality of Polotsk. The settlement developed on the rivers
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St. Petersburg
Saint
Saint
Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk] ( listen)) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with five million inhabitants in 2012.[9] An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city). Situated on the Neva
Neva
River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar
Tsar
Peter the Great
Peter the Great
on May 27 [O.S. 16] 1703
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Kiev
Kiev
Kiev
(/ˈkiːɛf, -ɛv/ KEE-ef, -ev)[10] or Kyiv (Ukrainian: Київ, translit. Kyiv [ˈkɪjiu̯] ( listen); Old East Slavic: Кыѥвъ, translit. Kyjev; Polish: Kijów Polish pronunciation: [ˈkʲijuf]; Russian: Киев, translit. Kiyev [ˈkʲiɪf]) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974[2] (though higher estimated numbers have been cited in the press),[11] making Kiev
Kiev
the 7th most populous city in Europe.[12] Kiev
Kiev
is an important industrial, scientific, educational, and cultural centre of Eastern Europe
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London
London
London
(/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom.[7][8] Standing on the River Thames
River Thames
in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[9] London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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John Of The Lithuanian Dukes
John of the Lithuanian Dukes
John of the Lithuanian Dukes
(Jan Ochstat de Thelnicz, Lithuanian: Jonas iš Lietuvos kunigaikščių, Polish: Jan z Książąt Litewskich; 8 January 1499 – 18 March 1538) was Bishop of Wilno (1519–36) and of Bishop of Poznań (1536–38). He was the bishop when Protestantism
Protestantism
was making the first inroads into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and took the first steps in combating it. John was an illegitimate son of Sigismund I the Old, King of Poland
King of Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his mistress Katarzyna Telniczenka. Early life[edit] John was born in 1499, well before Sigismund's first marriage to Barbara Zápolya
Barbara Zápolya
in 1512
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Copenhagen
Copenhagener [3]Time zone CET (UTC+1) • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)Postal code 1050–1778, 2100, 2150, 2200, 2300, 2400, 2450, 2500Area code(s) (+45) 3Website www.kk.dkCopenhagen[a] (Danish: København [købm̩ˈhɑwˀn] ( listen); Latin: Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. The city has a population of 775,033 (as of January 2018[update]), of whom 613,288 live in the Municipality of Copenhagen.[6][7] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund
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Cyrillic Script
The Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
/sɪˈrɪlɪk/ is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia). It is based on the Early Cyrillic alphabet developed during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School in the First Bulgarian Empire.[2][3][4] It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, especially those of Orthodox Slavic origin, and non- Slavic languages
Slavic languages
influenced by Russian
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Oktoikh, 1491
Fiol's Octoechos is an incunabulum octoechos, the first printed book in the Cyrillic script. It was printed by Schweipolt Fiol, a German native of Franconia, in 1491 in Cracow. The only complete copy, of seven remaining, of Oktoikh is kept by the Russian State Library in Moscow. In the past this copy belonged to Johann Hess (1490–1547), a Wroclaw (Breslau) bibliophile and reformer. External links[edit]Online view and short description of Oktoikh Image of the OktoikhThis article about a book is a stub
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