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Francesco Ingoli
Francesco Ingoli (1578 – 1649) was an Italian priest, lawyer and professor of civil and canon law. Biography[edit] Born in Ravenna
Ravenna
Italy, Ingoli graduated from the University of Padua in civil and canon law in 1601, he entered the order of clerics Theatines
Theatines
and studied astronomy, writing an essay on Stars in 1604 and on Comets in 1607. Since 1606 he was in the service of Cardinal Caetani Boniface (1567-1617) who was the papal legate in Romagna
Romagna
and followed the Cardinal to Rome when he was appointed member of the Congregation of the Index. In Rome he attended the Accademia dei Lincei founded by Federico Cesi.[1] His name is particularly linked to the controversy over the Copernican system. He used a combination of theological and scientific arguments to support the astronomical theory of Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
(see Tychonic System) over that of Copernicus
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Italian People
c. 140 million Italian citizens: c. 60 million Italian ancestry: c. 80 millionRegions with significant populations  Italy
Italy
       c
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ArXiv
arXiv (pronounced "archive")[2] is a repository of electronic preprints (known as e-prints) approved for publication after moderation, that consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, and quantitative finance, which can be accessed online. In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14, 1991, arXiv.org passed the half-million article milestone on October 3, 2008,[3][4] and hit a million by the end of 2014.[5][6] By October 2016 the submission rate had grown to more than 10,000 per month.[6][7]Contents1 History 2 Peer review 3 Submission formats 4 Access 5 Copyright status of files 6 Controversy 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit]A screenshot of the arXiv taken in 1994,[8] using the browser NCSA Mosaic
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University Of Padua
The University of Padua
Padua
(Italian: Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is a premier Italian university[1] located in the city of Padua, Italy. The University of Padua
Padua
was founded in 1222 as a school of law and was one of the most prominent universities in early modern Europe.[2] Padua
Padua
is the second-oldest university in Italy
Italy
and the world's fifth-oldest surviving university
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Theatines
The Theatines
Theatines
or the Congregation of Clerics Regular of the Divine Providence are a religious order of the Catholic Church, with the post-nominal initials "C.R."Contents1 Foundation 2 Growth 3 Decline of the Order 4 Today 5 Prominent members 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External links 9 BibliographyFoundation[edit] The order was founded by Saint Cajetan
Saint Cajetan
(Gaetano dei Conti di Thiene), Paolo Consiglieri, Bonifacio da Colle, and Giovanni Pietro Carafa (afterwards Pope Paul IV)
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Romagna
Romagna (Romagnol: Rumâgna) is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna. Traditionally, it is limited by the Apennines to the south-west, the Adriatic to the east, and the rivers Reno and Sillaro to the north and west
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Congregation Of The Index
The Index Librorum Prohibitorum
Index Librorum Prohibitorum
(English: List of Prohibited Books) was a list of publications deemed heretical, or contrary to morality by the Sacred Congregation of the Index (a former Dicastery of the Roman Curia) and thus Catholics were forbidden to read them.[1] The 9th century
9th century
witnessed the creation of what is considered to be the first index, called the Decretum Glasianum, but it was never officially authorized.[2] Much later, a first version (the Pauline Index) was promulgated by Pope Paul IV
Pope Paul IV
in 1559, which Paul F
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Accademia Dei Lincei
The Accademia dei Lincei
Accademia dei Lincei
(Italian pronunciation: [akːaˈdɛːmja dei linˈtʃɛi]) (literally the " Academy
Academy
of the Lynx-Eyed", but anglicised as the Lincean Academy) is an Italian science academy, located at the Palazzo Corsini on the Via della Lungara
Via della Lungara
in Rome, Italy. Founded in 1603 by Federico Cesi, the academy was named after the lynx, an animal whose sharp vision symbolizes the observational prowess that science requires
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Federico Cesi
Federico Angelo Cesi (Italian: [fedeˈriːko ˈandʒelo ˈtʃɛːzi]; February 26, 1585 – August 1, 1630) was an Italian scientist, naturalist, and founder of the Accademia dei Lincei. On his father's death in 1630, he became briefly lord of Acquasparta.Contents1 Biography 2 The Accademia dei Lincei
Accademia dei Lincei
("Academy of the Lynxes") 3 Other contributions 4 Books by Federico Cesi 5 Notes 6 ReferencesBiography[edit] Federico Cesi
Federico Cesi
was born to an aristocratic family highly connected in Rome
Rome
and the Papal States. The family derives its name from Cesi, a little town near Rome
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Tychonic System
The Tychonic system
Tychonic system
(or Tychonian system) is a model of the Solar system published by Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
in the late 16th century which combines what he saw as the mathematical benefits of the Copernican system with the philosophical and "physical" benefits of the Ptolemaic system. The model may have been inspired by Valentin Naboth[1] and Paul Wittich, a Silesian mathematician and astronomer.[2] A similar yet mathematically more efficient geoheliocentric model was also proposed a century earlier by Nilakantha Somayaji of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics.[3][4] It is conceptually a geocentric model: the Earth
Earth
is at the center of the universe, the Sun
Sun
and Moon
Moon
and the stars revolve around the Earth, and the other five planets revolve around the Sun
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Ravenna
Ravenna
Ravenna
(Italian pronunciation: [raˈvenna], also locally [raˈvɛnna] ( listen); Romagnol: Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
region of Northern Italy. It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476. It then served as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna
until the invasion of the Lombards
Lombards
in 751, after which it became the seat of the Kingdom of the Lombards. Although an inland city, Ravenna
Ravenna
is connected to the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
by the Candiano Canal
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Johannes De Sacrobosco
Johannes de Sacrobosco, also written Ioannis de Sacro Bosco (c. 1195 – c. 1256), was a scholar, monk and astronomer who was a teacher at the University of Paris. He wrote a short introduction to the Hindu–Arabic numeral system which became the most widely read introduction to that subject in the later medieval centuries (judging from the number of manuscript copies that survive today).[1][2] He also wrote a short astronomy textbook, Tractatus de Sphaera, which was widely read and influential in Europe during the later medieval centuries as an introduction to astronomy
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De Sphaera Mundi
De sphaera mundi
De sphaera mundi
( Latin
Latin
title meaning On the Sphere of the World, sometimes rendered The Sphere of the Cosmos; the Latin
Latin
title is also given as Tractatus de sphaera, Textus de sphaera, or simply De sphaera) is a medieval introduction to the basic elements of astronomy written by Johannes de Sacrobosco
Johannes de Sacrobosco
(John of Holywood) c. 1230. Based heavily on Ptolemy's Almagest, and drawing additional ideas from Islamic astronomy, it was one of the most influential works of pre-Copernican astronomy in Europe.Contents1 Reception 2 Content2.1 The universe as a machine 2.2 Spherical Earth3 References 4 Sources 5 External linksReception[edit] Sacrobosco's De sphaera mundi
De sphaera mundi
was the most successful of several competing thirteenth-century textbooks on this topic
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Ptolemy
Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(/ˈtɒləmi/; Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos [kláwdios ptolɛmɛ́ːos]; Latin: Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemaeus; c. AD 100 – c. 170)[2] was a Greco-Roman[3] mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.[4][5] He lived in the city of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, and held Roman citizenship.[6] The 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou
Ptolemais Hermiou
(Greek: Πτολεμαΐς ‘Ερμείου) in the Thebaid
Thebaid
(Greek: Θηβαΐδα [Θηβαΐς])
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Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
Brahe
(/ˌtaɪkoʊ ˈbrɑːhi, ˈbrɑː, ˈbrɑːə/, born Tyge Ottesen Brahe
Brahe
(Danish: [ˈtyːə ˈʌdəsn̩ ˈbʁɑː][n 1]); 14 December 1546 – 24 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations. He was born in the then Danish peninsula of Scania. Well known in his lifetime as an astronomer, astrologer and alchemist, he has been described as "the first competent mind in modern astronomy to feel ardently the passion for exact empirical facts."[1] His observations were some five times more accurate than the best available observations at the time. An heir to several of Denmark's principal noble families, he received a comprehensive education. He took an interest in astronomy and in the creation of more accurate instruments of measurement
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