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Fram
Fram
Fram
("Forward") is a ship that was used in expeditions of the Arctic and Antarctic
Antarctic
regions by the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen
Roald Amundsen
between 1893 and 1912. It was designed and built by the Scottish-Norwegian shipwright Colin Archer for Fridtjof Nansen's 1893 Arctic
Arctic
expedition in which the plan was to freeze Fram
Fram
into the Arctic
Arctic
ice sheet and float with it over the North Pole. Fram
Fram
is said[by whom?] to have sailed farther north (85°57'N) and farther south (78°41'S) than any other wooden ship
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Arc Lamp
An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc). The carbon arc light, which consists of an arc between carbon electrodes in air, invented by Humphry Davy in the first decade of the 1800s, was the first practical electric light.[1] It was widely used starting in the 1870s for street and large building lighting until it was superseded by the incandescent light in the early 20th century.[1] It continued in use in more specialized applications where a high intensity point light source was needed, such as searchlights and movie projectors until after World War II
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Ship
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing. Historically, a "ship" was a sailing vessel with at least three square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit. Ships are generally distinguished from boats, based on size, shape, load capacity, and tradition. Ships have been important contributors to human migration and commerce. They have supported the spread of colonization and the slave trade, but have also served scientific, cultural, and humanitarian needs. After the 15th century, new crops that had come from and to the Americas via the European seafarers significantly contributed to the world population growth.[1] Ship transport
Ship transport
is responsible for the largest portion of world commerce. As of 2016, there were more than 49,000 merchant ships, totaling almost 1.8 billion dead weight tons
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Propeller
A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust. A pressure difference is produced between the forward and rear surfaces of the airfoil-shaped blade, and a fluid (such as air or water) is accelerated behind the blade. Propeller
Propeller
dynamics, like those of aircraft wings, can be modelled by either or both Bernoulli's principle
Bernoulli's principle
and Newton's third law. A marine propeller of this type is sometimes colloquially known as a screw propeller or screw, however there is a different class of propellers known as cycloidal propellers – they are characterized by the higher propulsive efficiency averaging 0.72 compared to the screw propeller's average of 0.6 and the ability to throw thrust in any direction at any time
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Arctic Ice
The Arctic ice pack is the ice cover of the Arctic Ocean and its vicinity. The Arctic ice pack undergoes a regular seasonal cycle in which ice melts in spring and summer, reaches a minimum around mid-September, then increases during fall and winter. Summer ice cover in the Arctic is about 50% of winter cover.[1] Some of the ice survives from one year to the next. Currently 28% of Arctic basin sea ice is multi-year ice,[2] thicker than seasonal ice: up to 3–4 m (9.8–13.1 ft) thick over large areas, with ridges up to 20 m (65.6 ft) thick
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Windmill
A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades.[1][2] Centuries ago, windmills usually were used to mill grain (gristmills), pump water (windpumps), or both.[3] The majority of modern windmills take the form of wind turbines used to generate electricity, or windpumps used to pump water, either for land drainage or to extract groundwater.Contents1 Windmills in antiquity 2 Horizontal windmills 3 Vertical windmills3.1 Post mill3.1.1 Hollow-post mill3.2 Tower mill 3.3 Smock mill4 Mechanics4.1 Sails 4.2 Machinery5 Spread and decline 6 Wind turbines 7 Windpumps 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksWindmills in antiquity[edit]Heron's wind-powered organ.The windwheel of the Greek engineer
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Svalbard
Svalbard
Svalbard
(/ˈsvɑːlbɑːrd/;[3] Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈsʋɑ(ː)lbɑːɾ]; prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, meaning "jagged mountains") is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. Situated north of mainland Europe, it is about midway between continental Norway
Norway
and the North Pole. The islands of the group range from 74° to 81° north latitude, and from 10° to 35° east longitude. The largest island is Spitsbergen, followed by Nordaustlandet
Nordaustlandet
and Edgeøya. Administratively, the archipelago is not part of any Norwegian county, but forms an unincorporated area administered by a governor appointed by the Norwegian government. Since 2002, Svalbard's main settlement, Longyearbyen, has had an elected local government, somewhat similar to mainland municipalities
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Ocean Current
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of seawater generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as breaking waves, wind, the Coriolis effect, cabbeling, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun
Sun
and Moon. Depth contours, shoreline configurations, and interactions with other currents influence a current's direction and strength. Therefore, ocean currents are primarily horizontal water movements. Ocean
Ocean
currents flow for great distances, and together, create the global conveyor belt which plays a dominant role in determining the climate of many of the Earth’s regions. More specifically, ocean currents influence the temperature of the regions through which they travel. For example, warm currents traveling along more temperate coasts increase the temperature of the area by warming the sea breezes that blow over them
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Siberia
Coordinates: 60°0′N 105°0′E / 60.000°N 105.000°E / 60.000; 105.000SiberiaRussian: Сибирь (Sibir)Geographical region       Siberian Federal District        Geographic Russian Siberia        North AsiaCountry  Russia,  KazakhstanRegion North AsiaBorders on West: Ural Mountains North: Arctic
Arctic
Ocean East: Pacific
Pacific
Ocean South: Kazakhstan, Mongolia, ChinaParts West Siberian Plain Central Siberian Plateau others...Highest point Klyuchevskaya Sopka - elevation 4,649 m (15,253 ft)Area 13,100,000 km2 (5,057,938 sq mi)Population 36,000,000 (2017)Density 2.7/km2 (7/sq mi) Siberia
Siberia
(/saɪˈbɪəriə/; Russian: Сиби́рь, tr
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Walrus
O. rosmarus rosmarus O. rosmarus divergens O. rosmarus laptevi (debated)Distribution of walrus Walrus
Walrus
cows and yearlings (short tusks), photo courtesy USFWSThe walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole
North Pole
in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. The walrus is the only living species in the family Odobenidae
Odobenidae
and genus Odobenus. This species is subdivided into three subspecies:[2] the Atlantic walrus (O. r. rosmarus) which lives in the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific walrus (O. r. divergens) which lives in the Pacific Ocean, and O. r. laptevi, which lives in the Laptev Sea
Laptev Sea
of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean. Adult walrus are easily recognized by their prominent tusks, whiskers, and bulk
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Polar Bear
Ursus eogroenlandicus Ursus groenlandicus Ursus jenaensis Ursus labradorensis Ursus marinus Ursus polaris Ursus spitzbergensis Ursus ungavensis Thalarctos maritimusThe polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a carnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic
Arctic
Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses. It is a large bear, approximately the same size as the omnivorous Kodiak bear
Kodiak bear
(Ursus arctos middendorffi).[3] A boar (adult male) weighs around 350–700 kg (772–1,543 lb),[4] while a sow (adult female) is about half that size
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Knot (unit)
The knot (/nɒt/) is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h (approximately 1.15078 mph).[1] The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn.[2] The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE); kt is also common
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Keel
On boats and ships, the keel is either of two parts: a structural element that sometimes resembles a fin and protrudes below a boat along the central line, or a hydrodynamic element. These parts overlap. As the laying down of the keel is the initial step in the construction of a ship, in British and American shipbuilding traditions the construction is dated from this event. Only the ship's launching is considered more significant in its creation. The word can also be used as a synecdoche to refer to a complete boat, such as a keelboat.Contents1 History 2 Structural keels 3 Hydrodynamic keels3.1 Non-sailing keels 3.2 Sailboat
Sailboat
keels4 Etymology 5 See also 6 Notes 7 BibliographyHistory[edit] The adjustable centerboard keel traces its roots to the medieval Chinese Song dynasty. Many Song Chinese junk ships had a ballasted and bilge keel that consisted of wooden beams bound together with iron hoops
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Triple-expansion Steam Engine
A compound steam engine unit is a type of steam engine where steam is expanded in two or more stages.[1][2] A typical arrangement for a compound engine is that the steam is first expanded in a high-pressure (HP) cylinder, then having given up heat and losing pressure, it exhausts directly into one or more larger-volume low-pressure (LP) cylinders. Multiple-expansion engines employ additional cylinders, of progressively lower pressure, to extract further energy from the steam.[3] Invented in 1781, this technique was first employed on a Cornish beam engine in 1804
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Gross Register Tonnage
Gross register tonnage (GRT, grt, g.r.t., gt) or gross registered tonnage, is a ship's total internal volume expressed in "register tons", each of which is equal to 100 cubic feet (2.83 m3)
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Blubber
Blubber
Blubber
is a thick layer of vascularized adipose tissue under the skin of all cetaceans, pinnipeds and sirenians.Contents1 Description 2 Function 3 Human influences3.1 Uses 3.2 Health 3.3 Toxicity4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit] Lipid-rich, collagen fiber-laced blubber comprises the hypodermis[1] and covers the whole body, except for parts of the appendages. It is strongly attached to the musculature and skeleton by highly organized, fan-shaped networks of tendons and ligaments, can comprise up to 50% of the body mass of some marine mammals during some points in their lives, and can range from 2 inches (5 cm) thick in dolphins and smaller whales, to more than 12 inches (30 cm) thick in some bigger whales, such as right and bowhead whales. However, this is not indicative of larger whales' ability to retain heat better, as the thickness of a whale's blubber does not significantly affect heat loss
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