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Fragmented Poland
The period of rule by the Piast dynasty
Piast dynasty
between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish nation. The dynasty was founded by a series of dukes listed by the chronicler Gallus Anonymous
Gallus Anonymous
in the early 12th century: (Siemowit, Lestek
Lestek
and Siemomysł. It was Mieszko I, the son of Siemomysł, who is now considered the proper founder of the Polish state at about 960 AD.[1] The ruling house then remained in power in the Polish lands until 1370. Mieszko converted to Christianity
Christianity
of the Western Latin Rite in an event known as the Baptism of Poland
Baptism of Poland
in 966, which established a major cultural boundary in Europe
Europe
based on religion
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History Of Poland
The history of Poland
Poland
has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.[1] The first ruling dynasty, the Piasts, emerged by the 10th century AD. Duke Mieszko I (d. 992) is considered the de facto creator of the Polish state and is widely recognized for the adoption of Western Christianity
Western Christianity
that followed his baptism in 966. Mieszko's duchy of Poland
Poland
was formally reconstituted as a medieval kingdom in 1025 by his son Bolesław I the Brave, known for military expansion under his rule. Perhaps the most successful of the Piast kings was the last one, Casimir III the Great, who presided over a brilliant period of economic prosperity and territorial aggrandizement before his death in 1370 without male heirs
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Crown Of The Kingdom Of Poland
The Crown
The Crown
of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), or simply the Polish Crown or just the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland
Poland
proper
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Christianity
Christianity[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic[1] religion based on the life, teachings, and miracles of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, known by Christians
Christians
as the Christ, or "Messiah", who is the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faiths
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Latin Church
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope
Pope
and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity. Employing the Latin liturgical rites, with 1.255 billion members (2015), the Latin Church
Latin Church
is the original and still major part of Western Christianity,[2] in contrast to the Eastern Catholic churches. It is headquartered in the Vatican City, enclaved in Rome, Italy. Historically, the leadership of the Latin Church, i.e., the Holy See, has been viewed as one of the five patriarchates of the Pentarchy
Pentarchy
of early Christianity, along with the patriarchates of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem
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Baptism Of Poland
The Christianization of Poland[1] (Polish: chrystianizacja Polski)[2] refers to the introduction and subsequent spread of Christianity in Poland.[3] The impetus to the process was the Baptism
Baptism
of Poland (Polish: chrzest Polski), the personal baptism of Mieszko I, the first ruler of the future Polish state, and much of his court. The ceremony took place on the Holy Saturday
Holy Saturday
of 14 April 966, although the exact location is still disputed by historians, with the cities of Poznań and Gniezno
Gniezno
being the most likely sites
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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West Slavs
The West Slavs
Slavs
are a subgroup of Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
who speak the West Slavic languages. They separated from the common Slavic group around the 7th century, and established independent polities in Central Europe by the 8th to 9th centuries. The West Slavic languages diversified into their historically attested forms over the 10th to 14th centuries. West Slavic speaking nations today include the Czechs, Kashubians, Poles, Silesians, Slovaks
Slovaks
and Sorbs
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Kingdom Of Poland (1025–1385)
The Kingdom of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Królestwo Polskie [kruˈlɛstfɔ ˈpɔlskʲɛ]; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave
Bolesław I the Brave
in 1025[2] to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty
Jagiellon dynasty
in 1385.[3] Contents1 Early Kingdom1.1 Period of fragmentation2 Dynastic change and union with Lithuania 3 See also 4 Notes4.1 Translations and transliterations5 ReferencesEarly Kingdom[edit]Coronation of the First King, Jan Matejko; depicts the coronation of Boleslaus I the BraveThe basis for the development of a Polish state was laid by the Piast dynasty, which had been preeminent since the 10th century. The conversion of Duke Mieszko I
Mieszko I
to Christianity
Christianity
paved the way for Poland to become a member of the family of Christian kingdoms
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Culture Of Europe
The culture of Europe
Europe
is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe.[1] European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its "common cultural heritage".[2]Contents1 Definition 2 Art2.1 Prehistoric Art 2.2 Classical Art 2.3 Medieval
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Bolesław I The Brave
Bolesław I the Brave
Bolesław I the Brave
(Polish: Bolesław I Chrobry  Polish (help·info), Czech: Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 – 17 June 1025), less often known as Bolesław I the Great (Polish: Bolesław I Wielki), was Duke of Poland
Duke of Poland
from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland
King of Poland
in 1025. As Boleslav IV, he was also Duke of Bohemia
Bohemia
between 1002 and 1003. He was the son of Mieszko I of Poland by his wife, Dobrawa
Dobrawa
of Bohemia. According to a scholarly theory, Bolesław ruled Lesser Poland
Lesser Poland
already during the last years of his father's reign
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Roman Catholic Archdiocese Of Gniezno
The Archdiocese
Archdiocese
of Gniezno
Gniezno
(Latin: Archidioecesis Gnesnensis, Polish: Archidiecezja Gnieźnieńska) is the oldest Roman Catholic archdiocese in Poland, located in the city of Gniezno.[1][2] The ecclesiastical province comprises the suffragan dioceses of Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
and Włocławek.Contents1 History 2 Special
Special
churches 3 Leadership 4 Suffragan dioceses4.1 Former suffragans5 See also 6 ReferencesHistory[edit]Relics of St Adalbert, Gniezno
Gniezno
CathedralThe Metropolitan Archdiocese
Archdiocese
of Gniezno
Gniezno
was established in 1000 AD at the instigation of the Polish duke Bolesław I the Brave
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Mieszko II Lambert
Mieszko II Lambert
Mieszko II Lambert
( Polish (help·info); c. 990 – 10/11 May 1034) was King of Poland
Poland
from 1025–1031, and Duke from 1032 until his death. He was the second son of Bolesław I the Brave
Bolesław I the Brave
but the eldest born from his third wife Emnilda of Lusatia. He was probably named after his paternal grandfather, Mieszko I. His second name, Lambert, sometimes erroneously considered to be a nickname, was given to him as a reference to Saint Lambert. Also, it is probable that this name Lambert was chosen after Bolesław's half-brother Lambert
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Siemomysł
Siemomysł
Siemomysł
or Ziemomysł (died c. 950–960[1]) was the third pagan Polans duke of the Piast
Piast
dynasty, and the father of Poland's first Christian ruler, Mieszko I. He was listed by Gallus Anonymous
Gallus Anonymous
in his Gesta principum Polonorum and was the son of Lestek, the second known Duke of the Polans. According to Gallus' account and historical research, Siemomysł
Siemomysł
has been credited with leaving the lands of Polans, Goplans
Goplans
and Masovians
Masovians
to his son Mieszko I, who further expanded them during his reign.[2] According to modern Polish historian Henryk Łowmiański, Siemomysł aided the Ukrani
Ukrani
uprising against the Germans in 954 AD. He supposedly reigned from around 930 (although some historians believe that he reigned from around 950)
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Casimir I The Restorer
Casimir I the Restorer
Casimir I the Restorer
(Polish: Kazimierz I Odnowiciel; b. Kraków, 25 July 1016 – d. Poznań, 28 November 1058), was Duke
Duke
of Poland
Poland
of the Piast dynasty
Piast dynasty
and the de jure monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death. He was the only son of Mieszko II Lambert
Mieszko II Lambert
by his wife Richeza, daughter of Count Palatine Ezzo of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
(of the Ezzonids) and granddaughter of Emperor Otto II. Casimir is known as the Restorer because he managed to reunite all parts of the Polish Kingdom after a period of turmoil. He reinstated Masovia, Silesia
Silesia
and Pomerania
Pomerania
into his realm
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