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Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric François Chopin
Chopin
(/ˈʃoʊpæ̃/; French: [fʁedeʁik fʁɑ̃swa ʃɔpɛ̃]; 1 March 1810 – 17 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano. He has maintained worldwide renown as a leading musician of his era, one whose "poetic genius was based on a professional technique that was without equal in his generation."[1] Chopin
Chopin
was born Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin[n 1] in the Duchy of Warsaw and grew up in Warsaw, which in 1815 became part of Congress Poland. A child prodigy, he completed his musical education and composed his earlier works in Warsaw
Warsaw
before leaving Poland
Poland
at the age of 20, less than a month before the outbreak of the November 1830 Uprising. At 21, he settled in Paris
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Waltz
The waltz (from German Walzer [ˈvalt͡sɐ̯]) is a ballroom and folk dance, normally in  triple (help·info) time, performed primarily in closed position.Contents1 History 2 Variants 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit]Play mediaWaltzThere are several references to a sliding or gliding dance that would evolve into the waltz that dates from 16th century Europe, including the representations of the printmaker Hans Sebald Beham
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Salon (gathering)
A salon is a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring host. They are generally defined as a cultural event linked to literature, art or discussion
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Harmony
In music, harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing. Usually, this means simultaneously occurring frequencies, pitches (tones, notes), or chords.[1] The study of harmony involves chords and their construction and chord progressions and the principles of connection that govern them.[2] Harmony
Harmony
is often said to refer to the "vertical" aspect of music, as distinguished from melodic line, or the "horizontal" aspect.[3] Counterpoint, which refers to the relationship between melodic lines, and polyphony, which refers to the simultaneous sounding of separate independent voices, are thus sometimes distinguished from harmony. In popular and jazz harmony, chords are named by their root plus various terms and characters indicating their qualities. In many types of music, notably baroque, romantic, modern, and jazz, chords are often augmented with "tensions"
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Piano Concerto
A piano concerto is a type of concerto, a solo composition in the Classical music
Classical music
genre which is composed for a piano player, which is typically accompanied by an orchestra or other large ensemble. Piano concertos are typically virtuoso showpieces which require an advanced level of technique on the instrument, including melodic lines interspersed with rapid scales, arpeggios, chords, complex contrapuntal parts and other challenging material. When piano concertos are performed by a professional concert pianist, a large grand piano is almost always used, as the grand piano has a fuller tone and more projection than an upright piano
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Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Musical Form
The term musical form (or musical architecture) refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music;[2] it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections.[3] In the tenth edition of The Oxford Companion to Music, Percy Scholes defines musical form as "a series of strategies designed to find a successful mean between the opposite extremes of unrelieved repetition and unrelieved alteration."[4] According to Richard Middleton, musical form is "the shape or structure of the work." He describes it through difference: the distance moved from a repeat; the latter being the smallest difference. Difference is quantitative and qualitative: how far, and of what type, different
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Folk Music
Folk music
Folk music
includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival. The term originated in the 19th century, but is often applied to music older than that. Some types of folk music are also called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music. This process and period is called the (second) folk revival and reached a zenith in the 1960s
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Nationalism
Nationalism
Nationalism
is a political, social, and economic system characterized by promoting the interests of a particular nation particularly with the aim of gaining and maintaining self-governance, or full sovereignty, over the group's homeland. The political ideology therefore holds that a nation should govern itself, free from unwanted outside interference, and is linked to the concept of self-determination. Nationalism
Nationalism
is further oriented towards developing and maintaining a national identity based on shared characteristics such as culture, language, race, religion, political goals or a belief in a common ancestry.[1][2] Nationalism
Nationalism
therefore seeks to preserve the nation's culture. It often also involves a sense of pride in the nation's achievements, and is closely linked to the concept of patriotism
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Napoleon
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon, he was Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French
from 1804 until 1814, and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon
Napoleon
dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France
France
against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide
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Daguerreotype
The Daguerreotype
Daguerreotype
(/dəˈɡɛrəˌtaɪp, -roʊ-, -riə-, -rioʊ-/;[1][2][3] French: daguerréotype) process, or daguerreotypy, was the first publicly available photographic process, and for nearly twenty years it was the one most commonly used. Invented by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre and introduced worldwide in 1839,[4][5][6] daguerreotype was almost completely superseded by 1860 with new, less expensive processes yielding more readily viewable images
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Given Name
A given name (also known as a first name, forename) is a part of a person's personal name.[1] It identifies a specific person, and differentiates that person from the other members of a group (typically a family or clan) who have a common surname. The term given name refers to the fact that the name usually is bestowed upon a person, normally to a child by his or her parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian
Christian
name, a first name which historically was given at baptism, is now also typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are often used in a familiar and friendly manner.[1] In more formal situations, a person's surname is more commonly used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname
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November Uprising
Congress PolandArmy of Congress Poland Russian EmpireImperial Russian ArmyCommanders and leaders Józef Chłopicki Michał Gedeon Radziwiłł Jan Zygmunt Skrzynecki Ignacy Prądzyński Kazimierz Małachowski Maciej Rybiński Jan Nepomucen Umiński Nicholas I of Russia Hans Karl von Diebitsch Ivan PaskevichStrength150,000 180,000–200,000Casualties and losses40,000 killed and wounded[1] about 22,000–23,000 killed[2] Total killed and wounded at least 60,000 32,000 captured 5,230–12,000 died of diseasev t eNovember UprisingStoczek 1st Wawer Nowa Wieś Kałuszyn Białołęka Olszynka Grochowska 1st Puławy 2nd Puławy Kurów Markuszów 2nd Wawer Dębe Wielkie Domanice Iganie Poryck Wronów Kazimierz Dolny Boremel Sokołów Podlaski Firley Lubartów Połąga Tykocin Nur Wilno Ostrołęka Rajgród Warsawv t ePolish–Russian WarsMuscovite/Lithuanian Livonian 1605–18
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Child Prodigy
In psychology research literature, the term child prodigy is defined as a person under the age of ten who produces meaningful output in some domain to the level of an adult expert performer.[1][2][3] The term Wunderkind (from German: Wunderkind, literally "wonder child") is sometimes used as a synonym for "prodigy", particularly in media accounts
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Congress Poland
The Kingdom of Poland,[1] informally known as Congress Poland[2] or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland
Poland
connected by personal union with the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
until 1832
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Lorraine
Lorraine
Lorraine
(French pronunciation: ​[lɔʁɛn]; Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine
Lorraine
Franconian: Lottringe; German:  Lothringen (help·info); Luxembourgish: Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est. Lorraine's name stems from the medieval kingdom of Lotharingia, which in turn was named for either Emperor Lothair I
Lothair I
or King Lothair II. It later was ruled as the Duchy of Lorraine
Lorraine
before the Kingdom of France
France
annexed it in 1766. From 1982 until January 2016, Lorraine
Lorraine
was an administrative region of France
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