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Forschungszentrum Jülich
Forschungszentrum Jülich
Jülich
(" Jülich
Jülich
Research Centre") is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
and is one of the largest interdisciplinary research centres in Europe. It was founded on 11 December 1956 by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
as a registered association, before it became "Kernforschungsanlage Jülich GmbH" or Nuclear Research Centre Jülich
Jülich
in 1967. In 1990, the name of the association was changed to "Forschungszentrum Jülich
Jülich
GmbH"
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Cray
Cray
Cray
Inc. is an American supercomputer manufacturer headquartered in Seattle, Washington.[1] It also manufactures systems for data storage and analytics.[4] Several Cray
Cray
supercomputer systems are listed in the TOP500, which ranks the most powerful supercomputers in the world.[5] The number of Cray
Cray
systems on the list varies from year to year. Cray
Cray
manufactures its products in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, where its founder, Seymour Cray, was born and raised. The company also has offices in St. Paul, Minnesota
St. Paul, Minnesota
(the site of its original headquarters under Seymour Cray) and numerous other sales, service, engineering, and R&D locations around the world.[6][7] The company's predecessor, Cray
Cray
Research, Inc
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Cluster (computing)
A computer cluster is a set of loosely or tightly connected computers that work together so that, in many respects, they can be viewed as a single system. Unlike grid computers, computer clusters have each node set to perform the same task, controlled and scheduled by software. The components of a cluster are usually connected to each other through fast local area networks, with each node (computer used as a server) running its own instance of an operating system. In most circumstances, all of the nodes use the same hardware[1][better source needed] and the same operating system, although in some setups (e.g
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Neutron
5000000000000000000♠0 e 3021799999999999999♠(−2±8)×10−22 e (experimental limits)[4]Electric dipole moment < 6974290000000000000♠2.9×10−26 e⋅cm (experimental upper limit)Electric polarizability 6997116000000000000♠1.16(15)×10−3 fm3Magnetic moment 3026033763500000000♠−0.96623650(23)×10−26 J·T−1[3] 3002895812437000000♠−1.04187563(25)×10−3 μB[3] 2999808695726999999♠−1.91304273(45) μN[3]Magnetic polarizability 6996370000000000000♠3.7(20)×10−4 fm3Spin 1/2Isospin −1/2Parity +1Condensed I(JP) = 1/2(1/2+)The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol n or n0, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms
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Research Reactor
Research reactors are nuclear reactors that serve primarily as a neutron source. They are also called non-power reactors, in contrast to power reactors that are used for electricity production, heat generation, or maritime propulsion.Contents1 Purpose 2 Technical aspects 3 Conversion to LEU 4 Designers and constructors 5 Classes of research reactors 6 Research centers 7 References 8 External linksPurpose[edit] The neutrons produced by a research reactor are used for neutron scattering, non-destructive testing, analysis and testing of materials, production of radioisotopes, research and public outreach and education. Research reactors that produce radioisotopes for medical or industrial use are sometimes called isotope reactors. Reactors that are optimised for beamline experiments nowadays compete with spallation sources. Technical aspects[edit] Research reactors are simpler than power reactors and operate at lower temperatures
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Neutron Source
A neutron source is any device that emits neutrons, irrespective of the mechanism used to produce the neutrons
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Condensed Matter
Condensed matter physics
Condensed matter physics
is a branch of physics that deals with the physical properties of condensed phases of matter,[1] where particles adhere to each other. Condensed matter physicists seek to understand the behavior of these phases by using physical laws. In particular, they include the laws of quantum mechanics, electromagnetism and statistical mechanics. The most familiar condensed phases are solids and liquids while more exotic condensed phases include the superconducting phase exhibited by certain materials at low temperature, the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of spins on crystal lattices of atoms, and the Bose–Einstein condensate
Bose–Einstein condensate
found in ultracold atomic systems
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Supercomputer
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer. Performance of a supercomputer is measured in floating-point operations per second (FLOPS) instead of million instructions per second (MIPS)
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John Von Neumann
John von Neumann
John von Neumann
(/vɒn ˈnɔɪmən/; Hungarian: Neumann János Lajos, pronounced [ˈnɒjmɒn ˈjaːnoʃ ˈlɒjoʃ]; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath
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Terabyte
The terabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The prefix tera represents the fourth power of 1000, and means 1012 in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), and therefore one terabyte is one trillion (short scale) bytes. The unit symbol for the terabyte is TB.Contents1 Definition 2 History 3 Illustrative usage examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesDefinition[edit] 1 TB = 1000000000000bytes = 1012bytes = 1000gigabytes. A related unit, the tebibyte (TiB), using a binary prefix, is equal to 10244 bytes. One terabyte is about 0.9095 TiB
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Petabyte
The petabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The prefix peta indicates the fifth power of 1000 and means 1015 in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), and therefore 1 petabyte is one quadrillion (short scale) bytes, or 1 billiard (long scale) bytes. The unit symbol for the petabyte is PB. 1 PB = 1000000000000000B = 1015bytes = 1000terabytes. A related unit, the pebibyte (PiB), using a binary prefix, is equal to 10245 bytes, which is more than 12% greater (250 bytes = 1125899906842624bytes). One thousand petabytes (1000 PB) is equal to one exabyte (1 EB). Usage examples[edit] Ex
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FLOPS
In computing, floating point operations per second (FLOPS, flops or flop/s) is a measure of computer performance, useful in fields of scientific computations that require floating-point calculations
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Central Processing Unit
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s.[1] Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O
I/O
circuitry.[2] The form, design, and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Primary Storage
Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers.[1]:15–16 The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy,[1]:468–473 which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away. Generally the fast volatile technologies (which lose data when off power) are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage". In the Von Neumann architecture, the CPU consists of two main parts: The control unit and the arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
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Byte
The byte (/baɪt/) is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, the byte was the number of bits used to encode a single character of text in a computer[1][2] and for this reason it is the smallest addressable unit of memory in many computer architectures. The size of the byte has historically been hardware dependent and no definitive standards existed that mandated the size – byte-sizes from 1[3] to 48 bits[4] are known to have been used in the past. Early character encoding systems often used six bits, and machines using six-bit and nine-bit bytes were common into the 1960s. These machines most commonly had memory words of 12, 24, 36, 48 or 60 bits, corresponding to two, four, six, eight or 10 six-bit bytes
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