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Forest Of Dean
The FOREST OF DEAN is a geographical, historical and cultural region in the western part of the county of Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
, England. It forms a roughly triangular plateau bounded by the River Wye
River Wye
to the west and north-west, Herefordshire
Herefordshire
to the north, the River Severn to the south, and the City of Gloucester
Gloucester
to the east. The area is characterised by more than 110 square kilometres (42.5 sq mi) of mixed woodland, one of the surviving ancient woodlands in England. A large area was reserved for royal hunting before 1066, and remained as the second largest crown forest in England, the largest being New Forest
New Forest

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Variscan Orogeny
The VARISCAN or HERCYNIAN OROGENY is a geologic mountain-building event caused by Late Paleozoic continental collision between Euramerica (Laurussia) and Gondwana to form the supercontinent of Pangaea . CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature * 2 Distribution * 3 Formation * 4 Notes * 5 Further reading * 6 External links NOMENCLATUREThe name Variscan, comes from the Medieval Latin
Latin
name for the district Variscia , the home of a Germanic tribe, the Varisci ; Eduard Suess , professor of geology at the University of Vienna , coined the term in 1880
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South Wales Coalfield
The SOUTH WALES COALFIELD (Welsh : Maes glo De Cymru) is a large region of south Wales that is rich in coal deposits, especially the South Wales
South Wales
Valleys . It supported a large part, but not all, of the coal industry in Wales
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Old Red Sandstone
The OLD RED SANDSTONE is an assemblage of rocks in the North Atlantic region largely of Devonian
Devonian
age. It extends in the east across Great Britain, Ireland and Norway, and in the west along the northeastern seaboard of North America
North America
. It also extends northwards into Greenland and Svalbard
Svalbard
. In Britain it is a lithostratigraphic unit (a sequence of rock strata ) to which stratigraphers accord supergroup status and which is of considerable importance to early paleontology . For convenience the short version of the term, ORS is often used in literature on the subject. The term was coined to distinguish the sequence from the younger New Red Sandstone
Sandstone
which also occurs widely throughout Britain
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Palaeozoic
The PALEOZOIC (or PALAEOZOIC) ERA ( /ˌpeɪliəˈzoʊɪk, ˌpæ-/ ; from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life" ) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. It is the longest of the Phanerozoic eras, lasting from 541 to 252.17 million years ago , and is subdivided into six geologic periods (from oldest to youngest): the Cambrian
Cambrian
, Ordovician
Ordovician
, Silurian
Silurian
, Devonian
Devonian
, Carboniferous
Carboniferous
, and Permian
Permian
. The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
comes after the Neoproterozoic Era of the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon and is followed by the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era
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Districts Of England
The DISTRICTS OF ENGLAND (also known as LOCAL AUTHORITY DISTRICTS or LOCAL GOVERNMENT DISTRICTS to distinguish from unofficial city districts) are a level of subnational division of England
England
used for the purposes of local government . As the structure of local government in England
England
is not uniform, there are currently four principal types of district-level subdivision. There are a total of 326 districts made up of 36 metropolitan boroughs , 32 London boroughs , 201 non-metropolitan districts , 55 unitary authorities , as well as the City of London
City of London
and the Isles of Scilly which are also districts, but do not correspond to any of these categories. Some districts are styled as boroughs , cities , or royal boroughs ; these are purely honorific titles, and do not alter the status of the district
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Charcoal
CHARCOAL is a lightweight, black residue, consisting of carbon and any remaining ash , obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Charcoal
Charcoal
is usually produced by slow pyrolysis — the heating of wood or other substances in the absence of oxygen (see char and biochar )
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Coal Mining
COAL MINING is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content , and, since the 1880s, has been widely used to generate electricity. Steel
Steel
and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production . In the United Kingdom and South Africa
South Africa
a coal mine and its structures are a COLLIERY; a coal mine a PIT; the above-ground structures the pit head . In Australia, "colliery" generally refers to an underground coal mine. In the United States
United States
"colliery" has been used to describe a coal mine operation but nowadays the word is not commonly used. Coal
Coal
mining has had many developments over the recent years, from the early days of men tunnelling, digging and manually extracting the coal on carts, to large open cut and long wall mines
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Roman Britain
ROMAN BRITAIN (Latin : Britannia
Britannia
or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
that was governed by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, from 43 to 410 AD. :129–131 Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
invaded Britain in 55 and 54 BC as part of his Gallic Wars . The Britons had been overrun or culturally assimilated by other Celtic tribes during the British Iron Age
British Iron Age
and had been aiding Caesar's enemies. He received tribute, installed a friendly king over the Trinovantes , and returned to Gaul
Gaul
. Planned invasions under Augustus
Augustus
were called off in 34, 27, and 25 BC. In 40 AD, Caligula assembled 200,000 men at the Channel , only to have them gather seashells
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Carboniferous
The CARBONIFEROUS is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian
Devonian
Period 358.9 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Permian Period, 298.9 Mya. The name Carboniferous
Carboniferous
means "coal-bearing" and derives from the Latin words carbō ("coal ") and ferō ("I bear, I carry"), and was coined by geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips in 1822. Based on a study of the British rock succession, it was the first of the modern 'system' names to be employed, and reflects the fact that many coal beds were formed globally during that time. The Carboniferous
Carboniferous
is often treated in North America as two geological periods, the earlier Mississippian and the later Pennsylvanian . Terrestrial life was well established by the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
period
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Limestone
LIMESTONE is a sedimentary rock , composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral , forams and molluscs . Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite , which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone
Limestone
has numerous uses: as a building material , an essential component of concrete ( Portland cement
Portland cement
), as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints , as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime , as a soil conditioner , or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens
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Mesolithic
In archaeology, the MESOLITHIC (Greek : μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Neolithic
Neolithic
. The term " Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
" is often used for areas outside northern Europe , but was also the preferred synonym used by French archaeologists until the 1960s. Mesolithic
Mesolithic
has different time spans in different parts of Eurasia
Eurasia
. It was originally post- Pleistocene
Pleistocene
, pre-agricultural material in northwest Europe about 10,000 to 5000 BCE, but material from the Levant
Levant
(about 20,000 to 9500 BCE) is also labelled Mesolithic
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Megalithic
A MEGALITH is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. The word "MEGALITHIC" describes structures made of such large stones without the use of mortar or concrete, representing periods of prehistory characterised by such constructions. For later periods, the term monolith , with an overlapping meaning, is more likely to be used. The word "megalith" comes from the Ancient Greek "μέγας" (transl. megas meaning "great") and "λίθος" (transl. lithos meaning "stone"). Megalith also denotes an item consisting of rock(s) hewn in definite shapes for special purposes. It has been used to describe buildings built by people from many parts of the world living in many different periods
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Tumulus
A TUMULUS (plural TUMULI) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as BARROWS, BURIAL MOUNDS or KURGANS , and may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn , which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may also originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are often categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus, usually constructed on top of several burials , such as passage graves . A round barrow is a round tumulus, also commonly constructed on top of burials. The internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen , a cist , a mortuary enclosure , a mortuary house , or a chamber tomb . Examples of barrows include Duggleby Howe
Duggleby Howe
and Maeshowe
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Giraldus Cambrensis
GERALD OF WALES (Latin : Giraldus Cambrensis; Welsh : Gerallt Gymro; French : Gerald de Barri; c. 1146 – c. 1223) was a Cambro -Norman archdeacon of Brecon and historian . As a royal clerk to the king and two archbishops, he travelled widely and wrote extensively. He both studied and taught in France and visited Rome several times, meeting the Pope. He was nominated for several bishoprics but turned them down in the hope of becoming bishop of St Davids, but was unsuccessful despite considerable support. His final post was as archdeacon of Brecon, from which he retired to academic study for the remainder of his life. Much of his writing survives. CONTENTS* 1 Life * 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Travels * 1.3 Attempts to become bishop of St
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Old English
OLD ENGLISH (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or ANGLO-SAXON is the earliest historical form of the English language
English language
, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman Conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman , a relative of French . This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English
Old English
era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English
Middle English

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