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Foreign War
The Foreign War (Greek: Ξενικὸς Πόλεμος, Xenikos Polemos) was fought between the forces of Knossos
Knossos
with the help of mercenaries under the ousted Phocian
Phocian
leader Phalaikos and the forces of Lyttos
Lyttos
who received help from the Spartans (who were founders of their city) under their King Archidamus III. The war took place in 346 BC. Knossos
Knossos
wanted to strengthen their hegemony of Crete
Crete
but received opposition from the Lyttians. In response Knossos
Knossos
employed foreign mercenaries under the former Phocian
Phocian
leader Phalaikos. In 346, Knossos declared war against Lyttos
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Crete
Crete
Crete
(Greek: Κρήτη, Kríti ['kriti]; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica. Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete
Crete
(Greek: Περιφέρεια Κρήτης), one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece. The capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011[update], the region had a population of 623,065. Crete
Crete
forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits (such as its own poetry and music). It was once the centre of the Minoan civilisation (c. 2700–1420 BC), which is the earliest known civilisation in Europe
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Hellenistic Greece
In the context of ancient Greek art, architecture, and culture, Hellenistic Greece
Greece
corresponds to the period between the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek heartlands by the Roman Republic. This culminated at the Battle of Corinth
Corinth
in 146 BC, a crushing Roman victory in the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
that led to the destruction of Corinth
Corinth
and ushered in the period of Roman Greece. The Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
began with the wars of the Diadochi, armed contests among the former generals of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
to carve up his empire in Europe, Asia, and North Africa. The wars lasted until 275 BC, witnessing the fall of both the Argead and Antipatrid dynasties of Macedonia in favor of the Antigonid dynasty
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Greece
Greece
Greece
(Greek: Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), historically also known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern Europe,[10] with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens
Athens
is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece
Greece
is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania
Albania
to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the north, and Turkey
Turkey
to the northeast
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Antigonid–Nabataean Confrontations
The Antigonid–Nabataean confrontations were three confrontations initiated by Greek general Antigonus I against the Arab Nabataeans in 312 BC. Following the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, his empire was disputed between his generals, including Antigonus, who for a time controlled the Levant.[1] Reaching Edom, just north of Petra, Antigonus became aware of the wealth of the Nabataeans, generated from the spice trade caravans. The three raids against the Nabateans either came to nothing or ended in disaster for the Greeks.[2]Contents1 Background 2 First confrontation 3 Second confrontation 4 Third confrontation 5 Aftermath 6 ReferencesBackground[edit] After Alexander the Great's death in 323 BC, his empire split among his generals
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Aeginetan War
Aegina
Aegina
(/iːˈdʒaɪnə/; Greek: Αίγινα, Aígina [ˈeʝina], Ancient Greek: Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands
Saronic Islands
of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 27 kilometres (17 miles) from Athens
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Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Greece
was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.[1] This Classical period saw the annexation of much of modern-day Greece
Greece
by the Persian Empire[2] and its subsequent independence. Classical Greece
Greece
had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and on the foundations of western civilization. Much of modern Western politics, artistic thought (architecture, sculpture), scientific thought, theatre, literature, and philosophy derives from this period of Greek history. In the context of the art, architecture, and culture of Ancient Greece, the Classical period[3] corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BC (the most common dates being the fall of the last Athenian
Athenian
tyrant in 510 BC and the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC)
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Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
Greece
was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece
Greece
in 480 BC,[1] following the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
and succeeded by the Classical period. The period began with a massive increase in the Greek population[2] and a series of significant changes which rendered the Greek world at the end of the eighth century as entirely unrecognisable as compared to its beginning.[3] According to Anthony Snodgrass, the Archaic period in ancient Greece
Greece
was bounded by two revolutions in the Greek world
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Mycenaean Greece
Mycenaean Greece
Greece
(or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC. It represents the first advanced civilization in mainland Greece, with its palatial states, urban organization, works of art and writing system.[1] Among the centers of power that emerged, the most notable were those of Pylos, Tiryns, Midea in the Peloponnese, Orchomenos, Thebes, Athens
Athens
in Central Greece
Greece
and Iolcos in Thessaly. The most prominent site was Mycenae, in Argolid, after which the culture of this era is named
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Ancient Greek Warfare
Warfare occurred throughout the history of Ancient Greece, from the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
onward. The Greek 'Dark Age' drew to a close as a significant increase in population allowed urbanized culture to be restored, which led to the rise of the city-states (Poleis). These developments ushered in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
(800-480 BCE). They also restored the capability of organized warfare between these Poleis (as opposed to small-scale raids to acquire livestock and grain, for example). The fractious nature of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
society seems to have made continuous conflict on this larger scale inevitable. Along with the rise of the city-state evolved a new style of warfare: the hoplite phalanx. Hoplites were armored infantryman, armed with spears and shields, and the phalanx was a formation of these soldiers with their shields locked together and spears pointed forward
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Theban Hegemony
The Theban hegemony
Theban hegemony
lasted from the Theban victory over the Spartans at Leuctra in 371 BC to their defeat of a coalition of Peloponnesian armies at Mantinea in 362 BC, though Thebes sought to maintain its position until finally eclipsed by the rising power of Macedon
Macedon
in 346 BC. Externally, the way was paved for Theban ascendancy by the collapse of Athenian power in the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
(431–404 BC), through the weakening of the Spartans by their oliganthropia (demographic decline) and by the inconclusive Corinthian War
Corinthian War
(395–386 BC)
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Knossos
Total inhabited area: 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi). Palace: 14,000 m2 (150,000 sq ft)[2]Height UnknownHistoryBuilder UnknownFounded First settlement about 7000 BC. First palace dates to 1900 BC.Abandoned Some time in Late Minoan IIIC, 1380–1100 BCPeriods Neolithic
Neolithic
to Late Bronze Age
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Phocian
Phocis was an ancient region in the central part of Ancient Greece, which included Delphi. A modern administrative unit, also called Phocis, is named after the ancient region, although the modern region is substantially larger than the ancient one. Geography[edit] Ancient Phocis was about 1,619 km² (625 mi²) in area, bounded on the west by Ozolian Locris and Doris, on the north by Opuntian Locris, on the east by Boeotia, and on the south by the Gulf of Corinth. The massive ridge of Parnassus (2,459 m/8,068 ft), which traverses the heart of the country, divides it into two distinct portions. Being neither rich in material resources nor well placed for commercial enterprise, Phocis was mainly pastoral. No large cities grew up within its territory, and its chief places, such as Delphi and Elatea, were mainly of strategic or cultural importance. History[edit] The early history of Phocis remains quite obscure
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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