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Food, Drug, And Cosmetic Act
The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
(abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. A principal author of this law was Royal S. Copeland, a three-term U.S. Senator from New York.[2] In 1968, the Electronic Product Radiation Control provisions were added to the FD&C
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Acronym
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO
NATO
or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux). There are no universal standards of the multiple names for such abbreviations and of their orthographic styling. In English and most other languages, such abbreviations historically had limited use, but they became much more common in the 20th century
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Criminal Law
Criminal law
Criminal law
is the body of law that relates to crime. It proscribes conduct perceived as threatening, harmful, or otherwise endangering to the property, health, safety, and moral welfare of people. Most criminal law is established by statute, which is to say that the laws are enacted by a legislature. It includes the punishment of people who violate these laws. Criminal law
Criminal law
varies according to jurisdiction, and differs from civil law, where emphasis is more on dispute resolution and victim compensation than on punishment. Criminal procedure is formalized official activity that authenticates the fact of commission of a crime and authorizes punitive treatment of the offender
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National Academy Of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Sciences
(NAS) is a United States
United States
nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering
Engineering
(NAE) and the National Academy of Medicine (NAM). As a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Election to the National Academies is one of the highest honors in the scientific field. Members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation" on science, engineering, and medicine
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Bioterrorism
Bioterrorism
Bioterrorism
is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents. These agents are bacteria, viruses, fungi, or toxins, and may be in a naturally occurring or a human-modified form, in much the same way in biological warfare.Contents1 Definition1.1 Twentieth century2 Types of agents2.1 Category A 2.2 Category B 2.3 Category C3 Planning and response3.1 Preparedness 3.2 Biosurveillance4 Response to bioterrorism incident or threat4.1 2017 U.S
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Sulfanilamide
Sulfanilamide
Sulfanilamide
(also spelled sulphanilamide) is a sulfonamide antibacterial. Chemically, it is an organic compound consisting of an aniline derivatized with a sulfonamide group.[1] Powdered sulfanilamide was used by the Allies in World War II to reduce infection rates and contributed to a dramatic reduction in mortality rates compared to previous wars.[2][3] Modern antibiotics have supplanted sulfanilamide on the battlefield; however, sulfanilamide remains in use for treatment of vaginal yeast infections.[4] The term "sulfanilamides" is also used to describe a family of molecules containing these functional groups
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Chewing Gum
Chewing gum
Chewing gum
is a soft, cohesive substance designed to be chewed without being swallowed
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Drug
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.[2][3] In pharmacology, a pharmaceutical drug, also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being.[2] Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants, but more recently also by organic synthesis.[4] Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.[5] Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into drug classes—groups of related drugs that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (binding to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and that are used to treat the same disease.[6][verification needed][7] The Anatomical Therape
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Private Law
Private law is that part of a civil law legal system which is part of the jus commune that involves relationships between individuals, such as the law of contracts or torts[1] (as it is called in the common law), and the law of obligations (as it is called in civil legal systems). It is to be distinguished from public law, which deals with relationships between both natural and artificial persons (i.e., organizations) and the state, including regulatory statutes, penal law and other law that affects the public order
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Commerce Clause
The Commerce
Commerce
Clause describes an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3). The clause states that the United States Congress
United States Congress
shall have power "To regulate Commerce
Commerce
with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes." Courts and commentators have tended to discuss each of these three areas of commerce as a separate power granted to Congress.[1] It is common to see the individual components of the Commerce
Commerce
Clause referred to under specific terms: the Foreign Commerce Clause, the Interstate Commerce
Commerce
Clause,[2] and the Indian Commerce Clause. Dispute exists within the courts as to the range of powers granted to Congress by the Commerce
Commerce
Clause
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United States Congress
535 voting members100 senators 435 representatives6 non-voting membersSenate political groups     Republican (51)      Democratic (47)      Independent (2) (caucusing with Democrats)House of Representatives political groups     Republican (238)      Democratic (193)      Vacant (4)ElectionsSenate last electionNovember 8, 2016House of Representatives last electionNovember 8, 2016Meeting place United States
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Strict Liability
In law, strict liability is a standard for liability which may exist in either a criminal or civil context. A rule specifying strict liability makes a person legally responsible for the damage and loss caused by his/her acts and omissions regardless of culpability (including fault in criminal law terms, typically the presence of mens rea). Under strict liability, there is no requirement to prove fault, negligence or intention. Strict liability is prominent in tort law (especially product liability), corporations law, and criminal law. For analysis of the pros and cons of strict liability as applied to product liability, the most important strict liability regime, see product liability.Contents1 Tort law1.1 Bicycle–motor vehicle collisions2 Criminal law 3 See also 4 References Tort law[edit] In tort law, strict liability is the imposition of liability on a party without a finding of fault (such as negligence or tortious intent)
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Supreme Court Of The United States
The Supreme Court of the United States
United States
(sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[2]) is the highest federal court of the United States. Established pursuant to Article Three of the United States Constitution in 1789, it has ultimate (and largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal courts and state court cases involving issues of federal law plus original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is generally the final interpreter of federal law including the United States
United States
Constitution, but it may act only within the context of a case in which it has jurisdiction
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Blue
Blue
Blue
is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model. It lies between violet and green on the spectrum of visible light. The eye perceives blue when observing light with a dominant wavelength between approximately 450 and 495 nanometres. Most blues contain a slight mixture of other colors; azure contains some green, while ultramarine contains some violet. The clear daytime sky and the deep sea appear blue because of an optical effect known as Rayleigh scattering. An optical effect called Tyndall scattering
Tyndall scattering
explains blue eyes. Distant objects appear more blue because of another optical effect called atmospheric perspective. Blue
Blue
has been an important colour in art and decoration since ancient times
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Indigotine
Indigo carmine, or 5,5′-indigodisulfonic acid sodium salt, is an organic salt derived from indigo by sulfonation, which renders the compound soluble in water. It is approved for use as a food colorant in the U.S and E.U.,[2][3] It has the E number
E number
E132. It is also a pH indicator. Uses[edit]Indigo Carmine (pH indicator)below pH 11.4above pH 13.011.4 ⇌ 13.0 Indigo carmine
Indigo carmine
in a 0.2% aqueous solution is blue at pH 11.4 and yellow at 13.0. Indigo carmine
Indigo carmine
is also a redox indicator, turning yellow upon reduction
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Royal Blue
Royal blue is both a bright shade and a dark shade of azure blue. It is said to have been created by millers in Rode, Somerset, a consortium of which won a competition to make a dress for Queen Charlotte, consort of King George III.[3]Contents1 Brightness 2 Variations2.1 Queen blue3 In culture 4 See also 5 ReferencesBrightness[edit] Traditionally, dictionaries define royal blue as a deep to dark blue, often with a purple or faint reddish tinge.[citation needed] Oxford English Dictionary defines it as "deep vivid blue".[4] By the 1950s, many people[who?] began to think of royal blue as a brighter color, and it is this brighter color that was chosen as the web color "royal blue" (the web colors when they were formulated in 1987 were originally known as the X11 colors)
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