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Foco
The foco theory of revolution by way of guerrilla warfare, also known as focalism (foquismo [foˈkismo]), was formulated by French intellectual and government official Régis Debray, whose main source of inspiration was Marxist
Marxist
revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara's experiences surrounding his rebel army's victory in the 1959 Cuban Revolution. Its central principle is that vanguardism by cadres of small, fast-moving paramilitary groups can provide a focus (in Spanish, foco) for popular discontent against a sitting regime, and thereby lead a general insurrection
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Congo Crisis
1960–63: Republic of the Congo Supported by:   Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1960) ONUC[a]1960–63:  Katanga  South Kasai Supported by:  Belgium[b]1960–62: Free Republic of the Congo Supported by:  Soviet Union1964–65: Democratic Republic of the Congo Supported by: ONUC (1964)  United States  Belgium1964–65: Kwilu and Simba rebels Supported by: Soviet Union  China  CubaCommanders and leaders Joseph Kasa-Vubu Patrice Lumumba † Cyrille Adoula Dag Hammarskjöld † U Thant Joseph Kasa-Vubu Joseph-Désiré Mobutu Moïse Tshombe
Moïse Tshombe
(from 1964) Moïse Tshombe Albert Kalonji Gaston Eyskens Théo Lefèvre Antoine Gizenga (POW) Pierre Mulele Christophe GbenyeCasualties and lossesTotal killed: c
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Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov,[a] better known by the alias Lenin[b] (/ˈlɛnɪn/;[1] 22 April 1870[2] – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet Russia
Russia
from 1917 to 1924 and of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration, Russia
Russia
and then the wider Soviet Union
Soviet Union
became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, he developed political theories known as Leninism. Born to a wealthy middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin
Lenin
embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brother's 1887 execution
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Lake Tanganyika
Lake Tanganyika
Lake Tanganyika
is an African Great Lake. It is the second oldest freshwater lake in the world, second largest by volume, and the second deepest, in all cases after Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
in Siberia.[3][4] The lake is divided among four countries – Tanzania, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Burundi, and Zambia, with Tanzania
Tanzania
(46%) and DRC (40%) possessing the majority of the lake
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Socialist State
A socialist state or socialist republic (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) refers to any state that is constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism. In Western usage, the term "communist state" is often used in reference to single-party socialist states governed by parties adhering to a variant of Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
or Maoism, though these states officially refer to themselves as "socialist states" or states that are in the process of building socialism and do not describe themselves as "communist" or as having achieved communism.[1][2][3] Aside from the "communist states", a number of other states have described their orientation as "socialist" in their constitutions
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Theory Of The Productive Forces
The theory of the productive forces (sometimes referred to as productive force determinism) is a widely disseminated variation of historical materialism and Marxism
Marxism
that places primary emphasis on technical advances as the basis for advances and changes in the social structure and culture of a given civilization. The relative strength assigned to the role of technical (or technological) progress in impacting society and social advancement differs among different schools of Marxist thinkers. A related concept is technological determinism. On a prescriptive level, this view places a strong emphasis on the necessity of strengthening the productive forces of the economy as a precondition for the realization of socialism, and within a nominally socialist economy, essential to achieving communism
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Ho Chi Minh Thought
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
Thought (Vietnamese: Tư tưởng Hồ Chí Minh (literally "Thoughts of Ho Chi Minh") is the political philosophy of the Communist
Communist
Party of Vietnam. Since 1991, the contents of Ho Chi Minh's thought were formed and developed in association with the periods of Ho Chi Minh's activities in the revolutionary movement of Vietnam
Vietnam
and internationally as integral to the curriculum of fundamental instruction for civil servants in Vietnam.[1] At the beginning and the middle of the 20th century, Ho Chi Minh thought was the crystallization of Vietnamese culture, French revolutionary ideas, liberal ideas, Marxist–Leninist
Marxist–Leninist
communist ideals and Ho Chi Minh's personal qualities
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Husakism
Husakism (Czech: husákismus; Slovak: husákizmus) is an ideology connected with the Communist Slovak and Czechoslovak politician Gustáv Husák
Gustáv Husák
which has two different meanings and it was first used by Karol Bacílek (cs; de; sk) to denounce the alleged "bourgeois nationalism" of Husák in 1950s.[1] The later and more frequent use is for the ideology of Czechoslovak normalization, the Czechoslovak official ideology from about 1969 to about 1989, formulated by Husák, Vasil Biľak, and others.[2] References[edit]^ Dismissals In Slovakia Reflect Still Prevailing "Bourgeois Nationalism"[permanent dead link] ^ Bohumil Pečinka: Listopad 1989 byl kontrarevoluceThis Czechoslovakia-related article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis article about politics is a stub
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Goulash Communism
Goulash
Goulash
Communism
Communism
(Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) or Kadarism[1] (after János Kádár) refers to the variety of communism as practised in the Hungarian People's Republic
Hungarian People's Republic
from the 1960s until the Central European collapse of communism in 1989. With elements of free market economics as well as an improved human rights record, it represented a quiet reform and deviation from the Soviet
Soviet
principles applied to Hungary
Hungary
in the previous decade. The name is a semi-humorous metaphor derived from "goulash", a popular Hungarian dish
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Joseph Stalin
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin[note 1] (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian ethnicity. Governing the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953, he served as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1952 and as Premier of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1941 to 1953. Initially heading a collective one-party state government, by 1937 he was the country's de facto dictator. Ideologically a Marxist and a Leninist, Stalin helped to formalise these ideas as Marxism– Leninism
Leninism
while his own policies became known as Stalinism. Raised into a poor family in Gori, Russian Empire, as a youth Stalin joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
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Economic Planning
Economic planning
Economic planning
is a resource allocation mechanism that is contrasted with the market mechanism. As a coordinating mechanism for socialist economics, economic planning substitutes factor markets and is defined as a direct allocation of resources. This is contrasted with the indirect allocation mechanism of a market economy. There are various types that economic planning procedures and forms planning can take.[1] The level of centralization in decision-making in planning depends on the specific type of planning mechanism employed. As such, one can distinguish between centralized planning and decentralized planning.[2] An economy primarily based on central planning is referred to as a planned economy
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Ernst Thälmann
Ernst Thälmann
Ernst Thälmann
(16 April 1886 – 18 August 1944) was the leader of the Communist Party of Germany
Communist Party of Germany
(KPD) during much of the Weimar Republic. He was arrested by the Gestapo
Gestapo
in 1933 and held in solitary confinement for eleven years, before being shot in Buchenwald on Adolf Hitler's orders in 1944.[1]Contents1 Family and early years 2 Leaving home; World War I 3 Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD)3.1 KPD vs SPD4 Imprisonment and execution 5 Legacy 6 Writings (selection) 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksFamily and early years[edit] Ernst Thälmann's father was Johannes Thälmann (called 'Jan'; 11 April 1857 – 31 October 1933),[2] born in Weddern in Holstein, working there as a farmworker. Thälmann's mother, Mary-Magdalene (née Kohpeiss ; 8 November 1857 – 9 March 1927),[2] was born in Kirchwerder
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Earl Browder
Earl Russell Browder (May 20, 1891 – June 27, 1973) was an American political activist and leader of the Communist Party USA
Communist Party USA
(CPUSA). Browder is best remembered as the General Secretary of the CPUSA during the 1930s and first half of the 1940s. During World War I, Browder served time in federal prison as a conscientious objector to conscription and the war. Upon his release, Browder became an active member of the American Communist movement, soon working as an organizer on behalf of the Communist International and its Red International of Labor Unions
Red International of Labor Unions
in China
China
and the Pacific region. In 1930, following the removal of a rival political faction from leadership, Browder was made General Secretary of the CPUSA
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Enver Hoxha
Enver Halil Hoxha (Albanian pronunciation: [ɛnˈvɛɾ ˈhɔdʒa] ( listen); 16 October 1908 – 11 April 1985)[1] was an Albanian communist politician who served as the head of state of Albania
Albania
from 1944 until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania. He was chairman of the Democratic Front of Albania
Albania
and commander-in-chief of the armed forces from 1944 until his death. He served as the 22nd Prime Minister of Albania
Albania
from 1944 to 1954 and at various times served as foreign minister and defence minister as well. Born in Gjirokastër
Gjirokastër
in 1908, Hoxha became a teacher in grammar school in 1936. Following Italy's invasion of Albania, he entered into the Party of Labour of Albania
Party of Labour of Albania
at its creation in 1941
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Gonchigiin Bumtsend
Gonchigiin Bumtsend
Gonchigiin Bumtsend
(Mongolian: Гончигийн Бумцэнд; 11 September 1881 – 23 September 1953) was a Mongolian revolutionary who held several high level positions within the Mongolian government in the 1940s and early 1950s. He was Chairman of the Presidium of the State Little Khural (titular head of state) of the People's Republic of Mongolia
Mongolia
from July 1940 until his death. Early life and career[edit] Bumtsend was born on 11 September 1881 in Züünbürenhanuul Hoshuu, Tüsheet Khan
Tüsheet Khan
Province (present day Yeröö district, Selenge Province). The son of a poor herding family, Bumtsend taught himself to read and write Mongolian script
Mongolian script
at age 13 and helped illiterate herdsmen in his area write petitions to the government
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Mao Zedong
Mao
Mao
Zedong[a] (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China
Chairman of the Communist Party of China
from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. His theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism. Mao
Mao
was the son of a wealthy farmer in Shaoshan, Hunan. He had a Chinese nationalist and anti-imperialist outlook early in his life, and was particularly influenced by the events of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and May Fourth Movement
May Fourth Movement
of 1919
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