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FM Broadcasting
FM BROADCASTING is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation (FM) technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong , it is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio . FM broadcasting
FM broadcasting
is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting
AM broadcasting
, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. FM radio stations use the VHF
VHF
frequencies. The term "FM band" describes the frequency band in a given country which is dedicated to FM broadcasting
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Greenland
GREENLAND (Greenlandic : Kalaallit Nunaat, pronounced ; Danish : Grønland, pronounced ) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic
Arctic
and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Canadian Arctic Archipelago
. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America
North America
, Greenland
Greenland
has been politically and culturally associated with Europe
Europe
(specifically Norway
Norway
and Denmark, the colonial powers , as well as the nearby island of Iceland
Iceland
) for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit
Inuit
, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, gradually settling across the island
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Africa
AFRICA is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth\'s total surface area and 20.4% of its total land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population . The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Italy
Coordinates : 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12 Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana (Italian ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: Il Canto degli Italiani (Italian ) "The Song of the Italians" Location of Italy
Italy
(dark green) – in Europe
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Radio Frequency Interference
ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (EMI), also called RADIO-FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction. The disturbance may degrade the performance of the circuit or even stop it from functioning. In the case of a data path, these effects can range from an increase in error rate to a total loss of the data. Both man-made and natural sources generate changing electrical currents and voltages that can cause EMI: automobile ignition systems, mobile phones, thunderstorms, the Sun , and the Northern Lights . EMI frequently affects AM radios . It can also affect mobile phones , FM radios , and televisions , as well as observations for radio astronomy . EMI can be used intentionally for radio jamming , as in electronic warfare . EMI sound sample 1 A GSM mobile phone signal interferes with a speaker system
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Europe
EUROPE is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere
. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia
Eurasia
. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Though the term "continent" implies physical geography defines it, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Caribbean
The CARIBBEAN (/ˌkærɪˈbiːən/ or /kəˈrɪbiən/ , local most common pronunciation /ˈkærɪˌbiːən/ ) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
and the North American mainland, east of Central America , and north of South America
South America
. Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate , the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets , reefs and cays . (See the list .) These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
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Japan
Coordinates : 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136 Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku Flag Imperial Seal ANTHEM: * " Kimigayo " * 君が代 "His Imperial Majesty's Reign" GOVERNMENT SEAL OF JAPAN * * Go-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐) Area controlled by Japan
Japan
shown in green—claimed, but uncontrolled shown in light green Capital and largest city
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South Korea
Coordinates : 36°N 128°E / 36°N 128°E / 36; 128 Republic
Republic
of Korea 대한민국 DAEHAN MINGUK Flag Emblem MOTTO: "홍익인간 (弘益人間) " (Korean ) (de facto ) "Benefit broadly in the human world/Devotion to the Welfare of Humanity" ANTHEM: Aegukga "애국가 (愛國歌)" (Korean ) (de facto ) "Patriotic Song" GOVERNMENT EMBLEM 대한민국정부 상징문양 (Korean) Government Emblem of South Korea
Korea
Area controlled by South Korea
Korea
is shown in dark green; South Korean-claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green
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Philippines
Coordinates : 13°N 122°E / 13°N 122°E / 13; 122 Republic
Republic
of the Philippines Republika ng Pilipinas Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: " Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa " "For God, People, Nature, and Country" ANTHEM: Lupang Hinirang
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General Electric
GENERAL ELECTRIC (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
. As of 2016, the company operates through the following segments: Aviation , Current , Digital, Energy
Energy
Connections, Global Research , Healthcare , Lighting
Lighting
, Oil
Oil
and Gas , Power , Renewable Energy, Transportation , and Capital which cater to the needs of Financial services
Financial services
, Medical devices , Life Sciences
Life Sciences
, Pharmaceutical
Pharmaceutical
, Automotive
Automotive
, Software
Software
Development and Engineering industries. As of 2017, General Electric
General Electric
has the most patent assignments of all US-based corporations
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Circular Polarization
In electrodynamics , CIRCULAR POLARIZATION of an electromagnetic wave is a polarization state in which, at each point, the electric field of the wave has a constant magnitude but its direction rotates with time at a steady rate in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the wave. In electrodynamics the strength and direction of an electric field is defined by its electric field vector . In the case of a circularly polarized wave, as seen in the accompanying animation, the tip of the electric field vector , at a given point in space, describes a circle as time progresses. At any instant of time, the electric field vector of the wave describes a helix along the direction of propagation. A circularly polarized wave can be in one of two possible states, right circular polarization in which the electric field vector rotates in a right-hand sense with respect to the direction of propagation, and left circular polarization in which the vector rotates in a left-hand sense
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Frequency Spectrum
The power spectrum S x x ( f ) {displaystyle S_{xx}(f)} of a time series x ( t ) {displaystyle x(t)} describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal. According to Fourier analysis any physical signal can be decomposed into a number of discrete frequencies, or a spectrum of frequencies over a continuous range. The statistical average of a certain signal or sort of signal (including noise ) as analyzed in terms of its frequency content, is called its spectrum . When the energy of the signal is concentrated around a finite time interval, especially if its total energy is finite, one may compute the ENERGY SPECTRAL DENSITY. More commonly used is the POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY (or simply POWER SPECTRUM), which applies to signals existing over all time, or over a time period large enough (especially in relation to the duration of a measurement) that it could as well have been over an infinite time interval
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Baseband
BASEBAND is a signal that has a very narrow and near-zero frequency range, i.e. a spectral magnitude that is nonzero only for frequencies in the vicinity of the origin (termed f = 0) and negligible elsewhere. In telecommunications and signal processing , baseband signals are transmitted without modulation, that is, without any shift in the range of frequencies of the signal. Baseband
Baseband
has a low-frequency—contained within the bandwidth frequency close to 0 hertz up to a higher cut-off frequency . Baseband
Baseband
can be synonymous with LOWPASS or NON-MODULATED, and is differentiated from passband , bandpass , carrier-modulated , intermediate frequency , or radio frequency (RF)
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Transmission (telecommunications)
In telecommunications , TRANSMISSION (abbreviation: TX) is the process of sending and propagating an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission medium , either wired, optical fiber or wireless. One example of transmission is the sending of a signal with limited duration, for example a block or packet of data, a phone call, or an email. Transmission technologies and schemes typically refer to physical layer protocol duties such as modulation , demodulation , line coding , equalization , error control , bit synchronization and multiplexing , but the term may also involve higher-layer protocol duties, for example, digitizing an analog message signal, and source coding (compression). Transmission of a digital message, or of a digitized analog signal, is known as digital communication
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Time Constant
In physics and engineering , the TIME CONSTANT, usually denoted by the Greek letter τ (tau), is the parameter characterizing the response to a step input of a first-order, linear time-invariant (LTI) system. The time constant is the main characteristic unit of a first-order LTI system. In the time domain, the usual choice to explore the time response is through the step response to a step input , or the impulse response to a Dirac delta function
Dirac delta function
input. In the frequency domain (for example, looking at the Fourier transform
Fourier transform
of the step response, or using an input that is a simple sinusoidal function of time) the time constant also determines the bandwidth of a first-order time-invariant system, that is, the frequency at which the output signal power drops to half the value it has at low frequencies
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