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Fluvial
In geography and geology, fluvial processes are associated with rivers and streams and the deposits and landforms created by them. When the stream or rivers are associated with glaciers, ice sheets, or ice caps, the term glaciofluvial or fluvioglacial is used.[1][2]Contents1 Fluvial
Fluvial
processes 2 See also2.1 Fluvial
Fluvial
processes 2.2 Fluvial
Fluvial
channel patterns 2.3 Fluvial
Fluvial
landforms 2.4 Related terms3 References Fluvial
Fluvial
processes[edit] Fluvial
Fluvial
processes include the motion of sediment and erosion or deposition on the river bed.[3][4] Erosion
Erosion
by moving water can happen in two ways
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Matanuska River
The Matanuska River
Matanuska River
is a 75-mile (121 km) long stream in Southcentral Alaska, United States.[3] The river drains a broad valley south of the Alaska
Alaska
Range eponymously known as the Matanuska Valley.[6]Contents1 Co
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Saltation (geology)
In geology, saltation (from Latin
Latin
saltus, "leap") is a specific type of particle transport by fluids such as wind or water. It occurs when loose materials are removed from a bed and carried by the fluid, before being transported back to the surface. Examples include pebble transport by rivers, sand drift over desert surfaces, soil blowing over fields, and snow drift over smooth surfaces such as those in the Arctic
Arctic
or Canadian Prairies.[citation needed]Contents1 Process 2 Avalanches 3 See also 4 External links 5 ReferencesProcess[edit] At low fluid velocities, loose material rolls downstream, staying in contact with the surface. This is called creep or reptation
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Bradshaw Model
The Bradshaw Model is a geographical model, which describes how a river's characteristics vary between the upper course and lower course of a river. It shows discharge, occupied channel width, channel depth and how the average load quantity increases downstream[1], for example; load particle size, channel bed roughness and gradient are all characteristics that decrease. This is represented by triangles; an increase in the size of a triangle represents an increase in the variable
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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Po River
The Po (/poʊ/; Latin: Padus and Eridanus; Italian: Po [pɔ]; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Ancient Greek: Πάδος, Ancient Greek: Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy. The Po flows either 652 km (405 mi) or 682 km (424 mi) – considering the length of the Maira, a right bank tributary. The headwaters of the Po are a spring seeping from a stony hillside at Pian del Re, a flat place at the head of the Val Po
Val Po
under the northwest face of Monviso
Monviso
(in the Cottian Alps). The Po ends at a delta projecting into the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
near Venice
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "H
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Mississippi River
The Mississippi
Mississippi
River
River
is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
drainage system.[13][14] The stream is entirely within the United States
United States
(although its drainage basin reaches into Canada), its source is in northern Minnesota
Minnesota
and it flows generally south for 2,320 miles (3,730 km)[14] to the Mississippi
Mississippi
River
River
Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 31 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains. The Mississippi
Mississippi
ranks as the fourth-longest and fifteenth-largest river in the world by discharge
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Huang He
The Yellow River or Huang He ( listen) is the third longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River and Yenisei River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of 5,464 km (3,395 mi).[1] Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai province of Western China, it flows through nine provinces, and it empties into the Bohai Sea near the city of Dongying in Shandong province. The Yellow River basin has an east–west extent of about 1,900 kilometers (1,180 mi) and a north–south extent of about 1,100 km (680 mi). Its total drainage area is about 752,546 square kilometers (290,560 sq mi). Its basin was the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilization, and it was the most prosperous region in early Chinese history
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Alaska
Coordinates: 64°N 150°W / 64°N 150°W / 64; -150[1]State of AlaskaFlag SealNickname(s): The Last FrontierMotto(s): North to the FutureState song(s): "Alaska's Flag"Official language English, Inupiat, Central Siberian Yupik, Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Alutiiq, Aleut, Dena'ina, Deg Xinag, Holikachuk, Koyukon, Upper Kuskokwim, Gwich'in, Lower Tanana, Upper Tanana, Tanacross, Hän, Ahtna, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Coast TsimshianSpoken languages English 86.3% Alaska Native languages 5.2% Tagalog 3.4% Spanish 2.9% Others 2.2%Demonym AlaskanCapital JuneauLargest city AnchorageArea Ranked 1st • Total 663,268 sq mi (1,717,856 km2) • Width 2,261 miles (3,639 km) • Length 1,420 miles
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Corrosion
Corrosion
Corrosion
is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide. It is the gradual destruction of materials (usually metals) by chemical and/or electrochemical reaction with their environment. Corrosion engineering is the field dedicated to controlling and stopping corrosion. In the most common use of the word, this means electrochemical oxidation of metal in reaction with an oxidant such as oxygen or sulfur. Rusting, the formation of iron oxides, is a well-known example of electrochemical corrosion. This type of damage typically produces oxide(s) or salt(s) of the original metal, and results in a distinctive orange colouration. Corrosion
Corrosion
can also occur in materials other than metals, such as ceramics or polymers, although in this context, the term "degradation" is more common
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Suspension (chemistry)
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation. The particles may be visible to the naked eye, usually must be larger than 1 micrometer, and will eventually settle. A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles do not dissolve, but get suspended throughout the bulk of the solvent, left floating around freely in the medium.[1] The internal phase (solid) is dispersed throughout the external phase (fluid) through mechanical agitation, with the use of certain excipients or suspending agents. An example of a suspension would be sand in water. The suspended particles are visible under a microscope and will settle over time if left undisturbed
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Hjulström Curve
The Hjulström curve, named after Filip Hjulström (1902–1982), is a graph used by hydrologists and geologists to determine whether a river will erode, transport, or deposit sediment. It was originally published in his doctoral thesis "Studies of the morphological activity of rivers as illustrated by the River
River
Fyris.[1]" in 1935. The graph takes sediment particle size and water velocity into account.[2] The upper curve shows the critical erosion velocity in cm/s as a function of particle size in mm, while the lower curve shows the deposition velocity as a function of particle size. Note that the axes are logarithmic. The plot shows several key concepts about the relationships between erosion, transportation, and deposition. For particle sizes where friction is the dominating force preventing erosion, the curves follow each other closely and the required velocity increases with particle size
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Friction
Friction
Friction
is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.[2] There are several types of friction:Dry friction is a force that opposes the relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is subdivided into static friction ("stiction") between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction between moving surfaces
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Velocity
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time. Velocity is equivalent to a specification of its speed and direction of motion (e.g. 7001600000000000000♠60 km/h to the north). Velocity
Velocity
is an important concept in kinematics, the branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of bodies. Velocity
Velocity
is a physical vector quantity; both magnitude and direction are needed to define it. The scalar absolute value (magnitude) of velocity is called "speed", being a coherent derived unit whose quantity is measured in the SI (metric system) as metres per second (m/s) or as the SI base unit of (m⋅s−1). For example, "5 metres per second" is a scalar, whereas "5 metres per second east" is a vector
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