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Five Classics
The Four Books
The Four Books
and Five Classics (Chinese: 四書五經; pinyin: Sìshū wǔjīng) are the authoritative books of Confucianism
Confucianism
in China written before 300 BC.[1]Contents1 Four Books 2 Five Classics 3 Authorship of the Classics 4 See also 5 Notes 6 External linksFour Books[edit] The Four Books
The Four Books
(四書; Sìshū) are Chinese classic texts illustrating the core value and belief systems in Confucianism. They were selected by Zhu Xi
Zhu Xi
in the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
to serve as general introduction to Confucian thought, and they were, in the Ming and Qing dynasties, made the core of the official curriculum for the civil service examinations.[2] They are:Great Learning Originally one chapter in the Book of Rites
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The Four Books
The Four Books (Arabic: الكتب الاربعة‎, translit. al-Kutub al-Arbaʿah), or The Four Principles (al-Uṣūl al-Arbaʿah), is a Twelver Shia
Twelver Shia
term referring to their four best-known hadith collections:Name Collector No. of hadithKitab al-Kafi [a] Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni al-Razi (329 AH) 16,199Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih Muhammad ibn Babawayh 9,044Tahdhib al-Ahkam Shaykh Muhammad Tusi 13,590Al-Istibsar Shaykh Muhammad Tusi 5,511Shi'a Muslims use different books of hadith from those in Sunni Six major Hadith
Hadith
collections
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Zhu Xi
Zhu Xi
Zhu Xi
(Chinese: 朱熹; October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Huian, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty. He was a Confucian scholar who was the leading figure of the School of Principle and the most influential rationalist Neo-Confucian in China. His contributions to Chinese philosophy
Chinese philosophy
including his assigning special significance to the Analects, the Mencius, the Great Learning, and the Doctrine of the Mean
Doctrine of the Mean
(the Four Books), his emphasis on the investigation of things (gewu), and the synthesis of all fundamental Confucian concepts, formed the basis of Chinese bureaucracy and government for over 700 years
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Western World
The Western world, or simply the West (from Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
root wes-; Ancient Greek: Ἓσπερος /ˈhɛspərʊs/, Hesperos,[1] "towards evening") refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe. There are many accepted definitions, all closely interrelated.[2] The Western world
Western world
is also known as the Occident (from Latin
Latin
word occidens, "sunset, West"). The East and the Orient
Orient
are terms used as contraries. Ancient Greece[a][b] and ancient Rome[c] are generally considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization, the former due to its impact on Western philosophy, democracy, science, art, and the ancient Roman culture, the latter due to its influence in governance, republicanism, law, architecture and warfare
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Ifá
Ifá
Ifá
is a religion and system of divination and refers to the verses of the literary corpus known as the Odu Ifá. Orunmila is identified as the Grand Priest, as he is who revealed divinity and prophecy to the world. Babalawos or Iyanifas use either the divining chain known as Opele, or the sacred palm or kola nuts called Ikin, on the wooden divination tray called Opon Ifá. Ifá
Ifá
is practiced throughout the Americas, West Africa, and the Canary Islands, in the form of a complex religious system, and plays a critical role in the traditions of Santería, Candomblé, Palo, Umbanda, Vodou, and other Afro-American faiths, as well as in some traditional African religions.Contents1 History 2 Yoruba canon 3 Igbo canon 4 Ewe canon 5 Odù Ifá 6 International recognition 7 Notable Followers 8 See also 9 References 10 Further readingHistory[edit] The 16 principle system seems to have its earliest history in West Africa
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Geomancy
Geomancy
Geomancy
(Greek: γεωμαντεία, "earth divination") is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, rocks, or sand. The most prevalent form of divinatory geomancy involves interpreting a series of 16 figures formed by a randomized process that involves recursion followed by analyzing them, often augmented with astrological interpretations. Geomancy
Geomancy
was practiced by people from all social classes
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Divination
Divination
Divination
(from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god",[2] related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.[3] Used in various forms throughout history, diviners ascertain their interpretations of how a querent should proceed by reading signs, events, or omens, or through alleged contact with a supernatural agency.[4] Divination
Divination
can be seen as a systematic method with which to organize what appear to be disjointed, random facets of existence such that they provide insight into a problem at hand. If a distinction is to be made between divination and fortune-telling, divination has a more formal or ritualistic element and often contains a more social character, usually in a religious context, as seen in traditional African medicine
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Warring States Period
The Warring States period
Warring States period
(Chinese: 戰國時代; pinyin: Zhànguó shídài) was an era in ancient Chinese history of intensive warfare all around China with the goal of creating one Chinese Empire, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire
Chinese empire
known as the Qin dynasty. Although different scholars point toward different dates ranging from 481 BC to 403 BC as the true beginning of the Warring States, Sima Qian's choice of 475 BC is the most often cited
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Qin Dynasty
Huang-LaoHuangdi Sijing HuainanziEarly figuresGuan Zhong Zichan Deng Xi Li Kui Wu QiFounding figuresShen Buhai Duke Xiao of Qin Shang Yang Shen Dao Zhang Yi Xun Kuang Han Fei Li Si Qin Shi HuangHan figuresJia Yi Liu An Emperor Wen of Han Emperor Wu of Han Chao Cuo Gongsun Hong Zhang Tang Huan Tan Wang Fu Zhuge LiangLater figuresEmperor Wen of Sui Du You Wang Anshi Li Shanchang Zhang Juzheng Xu Guangqiv t eHistory of ChinaANCIENTNeolithic c. 8500 – c. 2070 BC Xia dynasty
Xia dynasty
c. 2070 – c. 1600 BC Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
c. 1600 – c. 1046 BC Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
c
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Republic Of China
Taiwan
Taiwan
(/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen)), officially the Republic of China
China
(ROC), is a state in East Asia.[15][16][17] Its neighbors include the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) to the west, Japan
Japan
to the northeast, and the Philippines
Philippines
to the south. It is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations. The island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty, the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan
Taiwan
to Japan
Japan
in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War
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Sui Dynasty
The Sui Dynasty (/swiː/;[3] Chinese: 隋朝; pinyin: Suí cháo) was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China
China
of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties
Northern and Southern dynasties
and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese
Han Chinese
in the entirety of China
China
proper, along with sinicization of former nomadic ethnic minorities (the Five Barbarians) within its territory
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Tao
Tao
Tao
(/taʊ/) or Dao (/daʊ/ DOW; from Chinese: 道; pinyin: Dào [tâu] ( listen)) is a Chinese word signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', 'road', 'choose', 'key' or sometimes more loosely 'doctrine', 'principle' or 'holistic science' [1]
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Disciples Of Confucius
According to Sima Qian, Confucius
Confucius
said: "The disciples who received my instructions, and could themselves comprehend them, were seventy-seven individuals. They were all scholars of extraordinary ability." It was traditionally believed that Confucius
Confucius
had three thousand students, but that only 72 mastered what he taught. The following is a list of students who have been identified as Confucius' followers. Very little is known of most of Confucius' students, but some of them are mentioned in the Analects
Analects
of Confucius
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Zeng Zi
Zengzi (505–435 BC), born Zeng Shen or Zeng Can (曾參), courtesy name Ziyu (子輿), was an influential Chinese philosopher and disciple of Confucius.[1] He later taught Zisi (Kong Ji), the grandson of Confucius, who was in turn the teacher of Mencius, thus beginning a line of transmitters of orthodox Confucian traditions.[1] He is revered as one of the Four Sages of Confucianism.[2] Contents1 Life 2 Filial piety 3 Descendants 4 References4.1 Citations 4.2 Bibliography5 External linksLife[edit]Statue of Zengzi (right) and his motherZeng Shen was 46 years younger than Confucius.[3] He was a native of South Wu City in the State of Lu, and was the son of Zeng Dian, one of the earliest disciples of Confucius.[1] When he was sixteen, he was sent by his father to study under Confucius. Confucians later considered him to be his second most senior student, after Yan Hui. Duanmu Ci said of him, "There is no subject which he has not studied. His appearance is respectful
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Dalbergia Sissoo
Dalbergia
Dalbergia
sissoo, known commonly as North Indian rosewood, is a fast-growing, hardy deciduous rosewood tree native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southern Iran. D. Sissoo is a large, crooked tree with long, leathery leaves and whitish or pink flowers. Common names for D. sissoo are sisu, tahli or tali, and also irugudujava. Indian common names are biradi, and sisau. In Afghanistan its name is shewa, and in Persian, it is called jag. Dalbergia
Dalbergia
sissoo is the state tree of India's Punjab state and the provincial tree of Pakistan's Punjab province. The wood of D. sissoo is known as sheesham or shisham and is an important commercial timber.[2]Contents1 Description 2 Distribution and habitat 3 Ecology 4 Uses4.1 Timber 4.2 Fuel wood 4.3 Teeth brushing 4.4 Pesticide 4.5 Construction5 Cultivation 6 See also 7 ReferencesDescription[edit] D
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Qing Dynasty
Tael
Tael
(liǎng)Preceded by Succeeded byLater JinShunSouthern MingDzungarRepublic of ChinaMongoliaThe Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing (English: /tʃɪŋ/), was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state. It was the fourth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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