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First Philippine Republic
Neolithic
Neolithic
ageCallao and Tabon peoples Arrival of the Negritos Austronesian expansion Angono Petroglyphs Lal-lo and Gattaran Shell Middens Jade cultureIron ageSa Huyun Culture Society of the Igorot Ancient barangaysEvents/ArtifactsBalangay grave goods Manunggul Jar Prehistoric gems Sa Huyun-Kalanay Complex Maitum Anthropomorphic PotteryArchaic epoch (900–1565) Historically documented city-states/polities (by geography from North to South)Samtoy chieftaincy Caboloan Tondo Namayan Rajahnate of Maynila Ma-i Madja-as Chiefdom of Taytay Rajahnate of
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Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
(Ilokano: Makin-abagatan nga Ilocos) is a province in the Philippines
Philippines
located in the Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region
in Luzon. Vigan
Vigan
City, located on the mouth of the Mestizo River is the provincial capital. Ilocos Sur is bordered by Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
and Abra to the north, Mountain Province to the east, La Union
La Union
and Benguet
Benguet
to the south and the South China Sea to the west. Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
was founded by the Spanish conquistador, Juan de Salcedo in 1572. It was formed when the north (now Ilocos Norte) split from the south (Ilocos Sur). At that time it included parts of Abra and the upper half of present-day La Unión
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Sa Huỳnh Culture
The Sa Huỳnh culture
Sa Huỳnh culture
or Sa Huyun was a culture in modern-day central and southern Vietnam
Vietnam
that flourished between 1000 BC and 200 AD.[1][2] Archaeological sites from the culture have been discovered from the Mekong Delta
Mekong Delta
to Quang Binh province in central Vietnam. The Sa Huynh people were most likely the predecessors of the Cham people, an Austronesian-speaking people and the founders of the kingdom of Champa.[3]:211–217 The site at Sa Huynh was discovered in 1909. Sa Huynh sites were rich in locally worked iron artefacts, typified by axes, swords, spearheads, knives and sickles. In contrast, bronze artifacts were dominant in the Đông Sơn culture
Đông Sơn culture
sites found in northern Vietnam and elsewhere in mainland Southeast Asia. The Sa Huynh culture cremated adults and buried them in jars covered with lids, a practice unique to the culture
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Paleolithic
The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
or Palaeolithic /ˌpæliːəˈlɪθɪk/ is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.[1] It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools by hominins c. 3.3 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
c. 11,650 cal BP.[2] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is followed in Europe by the Mesolithic, although the date of the transition varies geographically by several thousand years. During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and fishing, hunting or scavenging wild animals.[3] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans also used wood and bone tools
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Neolithic
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ ChalcolithicThe Neolithic
Neolithic
(/ˌniːəˈlɪθɪk/ ( listen)[1]) was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world[2] and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
or The New Stone Age, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic period and commenced with the beginning of farming, which produced the " Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution"
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Callao Man
Callao man (Ilocano: Tao ti Callao; Filipino: Taong Callao) refers to fossilized remains discovered in Callao Cave, Peñablanca, Cagayan, Philippines
Philippines
in 2007 by Armand Salvador Mijares. Specifically, the find consisted of a single 61-millimeter metatarsal which, when dated using uranium series ablation, was found to be about 67,000 years old.[1][2][3][4][5] As of July 2010[update], the biological classification of Callao Man is uncertain. The metatarsal bone discovered (Right MT3 — the small bone from the end of the middle toe of the right foot) has been identified as coming from a species of genus Homo, but the exact species classification is uncertain
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Angono Petroglyphs
Angono, (pronounced [äŋˈŋo̞no̞] or [äːˈŋo̞no̞]), officially the Municipality of Angono, (Tagalog: Bayan ng Angono), is a 1st class municipality in the province of Rizal, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 113,283 people.[3] Located 30 kilometres (19 mi) east of Manila, and with the continuous expansion of the metropolis, it is now considered part of Metro Manila's conurbation. It is best known as the "Art Capital of the Philippines", being the hometown of national artist for music Lucio San Pedro
Lucio San Pedro
and national artist for visual arts Carlos "Botong" Francisco,[4] as well as the site of the Angono Petroglyphs, the oldest known work of art in the Philippines. It is currently campaigning for its inclusion in the UNESCO
UNESCO
Creative Cities Network as it is a center for visual arts
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Lal-lo And Gattaran Shell Middens
The Lal-lo
Lal-lo
and Gattaran
Gattaran
Shell Middens are one of the most significant archaeological gastronomic finds in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
in the 20th century. The site is located along the banks of the Cagayan River
Cagayan River
in the province of Cagayan, Philippines. The site, as old as 2000 BC, is highly important due to its archaeological impact on the food resources and human activities of the ancient peoples of the Cagayan Valley
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Iron Age
Iron
Iron
Age metallurgy Ancient iron production↓ Ancient historyMediterranean, Greater Persia, South Asia, ChinaHistoriographyGreek, Roman, Chinese, MedievalThe Iron
Iron
Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age
Stone Age
(Neolithic) and the Bronze
Bronze
Age. It is an archaeological era in the prehistory and protohistory of Europe
Europe
and the Ancient Near East, and by analogy also used of other parts of the Old World
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Ancient Barangay
In early Philippine history, the Barangay
Barangay
was a complex sociopolitical unit[1] which scholars have historically[2] considered the dominant organizational pattern among the various peoples of the Philippine archipelago.[3] [4] These sociopolitical units were sometimes also referred to as Barangay states[4], but are more properly referred to using the technical term "polity," rather than "state",[3][5] so they are usually simply called "barangays."[4][1] But evidence suggests a considerable degree of independence as a type of "City states" ruled by Datu's , Rajah's and Lakan's and Sultans
Sultans

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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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Balangay
The Balangay
Balangay
(formerly synonymous with Butuan
Butuan
boat)[1] is a plank boat adjoined by a carved-out plank edged through pins and dowels. It was first mentioned in the 16th Century in the Chronicles of Pigafetta, and is known as the oldest watercraft found in the Philippines. The balangay was the first wooden watercraft excavated in Southeast Asia and is evidence of early Filipino craftsmanship and their seamanship skills during pre-colonial times. The Balanghai Festival is also a celebration in Butuan, Agusan del Norte
Agusan del Norte
to commemorate the coming of the early migrants that settled the Philippines, on board the Balangay
Balangay
boats.[2] When the first Spaniards arrived in the 16th century, they found the Filipinos living in well-organized independent villages called barangays
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Prehistoric Grave Goods In The Philippines
Grave goods
Grave goods
are utilitarian and ornamental objects buried with the deceased. "Pabaon", as present day Filipinos know, is the tradition of including the priced possessions or items of the dead to its grave because of the belief that these things might be helpful to the deceased as it travels to the life after death. This has been a practice since the neolithic times. Grave goods
Grave goods
are symbol of social activities, and in a way reflects the urge of the people who buried the dead to show his or her social status. Grave goods
Grave goods
provide substantial background on the technology, degree of complexity of the society, level of integration with other communities, social or group identities, individual identities, and concepts of wealth and power of the existing community. The types and prestige values of the grave goods differ among groups, because of cultural differences
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Manunggul Jar
The Manunggul Jar
Manunggul Jar
is a secondary burial jar excavated from a Neolithic burial site in the Manunggul cave of the Tabon Caves
Tabon Caves
at Lipuun Point in Palawan. It dates from 890–710 B.C.[2] and the two prominent figures at the top handle of its cover represent the journey of the soul to the afterlife. The Manunggul Jar
Manunggul Jar
is widely acknowledged to be one of the finest Philippine pre-colonial artworks ever produced and is considered a masterpiece of Philippine ceramics. It is listed as a national treasure and designated as item 64-MO-74[3] by the National Museum of the Philippines. It is now housed at the National Museum of Anthropology and is one of the most popular exhibits there
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Prehistoric Beads In The Philippines
The Philippines, like other Southeast Asian countries, is an archipelagic body of land and thus, commonly comes in contact with natural resources found in bodies of water. Many of the decorative pieces and tools that they possess, as well as their culture, seem to reflect this maritime characteristic. Tools such as choppers made of shell as well as decorative pieces like shell beads are common in Southeast Asian archaeological records due to this characteristic. According to Hughes,[1] unlike glass beads, trade of shell beads usually occur from the shore line towards the interior of the land mass. Shell beads in the Philippines
Philippines
are generally either whole or cut. Various sites have been found to contain shell beads, including Sucgang Barrio in Bohol; Sibale Island, near Surigao; Suluan island, south of Samar; Lagen Island in Palawan; and Camotes Islands.[2] Various studies have been conducted on these shell beads
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Kalanay Cave
The Kalanay Cave
Cave
is a small cave located on the island of Masbate in central Philippines. The cave is located specifically at the northwest coast of the island within the municipality of Aroroy. The artifacts recovered from the site were similar to those found in Southeast Asia and South Vietnam. The site is one of the "Sa Huynh-Kalanay" pottery complex which originated from Vietnam. The type of pottery found in the site were dated 400BC-1500 AD.[1][2]Contents1 Background 2 Kalanay Pottery Assemblage 3 Other findings 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] Examination of some pottery from the Carl E. Guthe Collection developed the idea of the Kalanay pottery complex.[3] The cave was first excavated in 1951 and considerable disturbances were noted pre-excavation
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