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First Indochina War
Viet Minh
Viet Minh
victory[10][11][12][13] Vietnam
Vietnam
is partitioned between North (controlled by the Viet Minh) and South (controlled by the State of Vietnam) Geneva Conference Departure of the French from Indochina State of Vietnam, Democratic Republic o
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Indochina Wars
The Indochina Wars
Indochina Wars
(Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia from 1946 until 1989, between communist Indochinese forces against mainly French, South Vietnamese, American, Cambodian, Laotian and Chinese forces. The term "Indochina" originally referred to French Indochina, which included the current states of Vietnam, Laos
Laos
and Cambodia. In current usage[update], it applies largely to a geographic region, rather than to a political area. The wars included:The First Indochina War
First Indochina War
(called the Indochina War
Indochina War
in France and the French War
French War
in Vietnam) began after the end of World War II
World War II
in 1945 and lasted until the French defeat in 1954
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Philippe Leclerc De Hauteclocque
Philippe François Marie Leclerc
Leclerc
de Hauteclocque (French pronunciation: ​[filip ləklɛʁ də otklɔk]; 22 November 1902 – 28 November 1947) was a French general during the Second World War. He became Marshal of France
Marshal of France
posthumously in 1952, and is known in France simply as le maréchal Leclerc
Leclerc
or just Leclerc. The son of an aristocratic family, de Hauteclocque graduated from the École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr, the French military academy, in 1924. After service with the French Occupation of the Ruhr
Occupation of the Ruhr
and in Morocco, he returned to Saint-Cyr as an instructor. He was awarded the croix de guerre des théâtres d'opérations extérieures for leading goumiers in an attack on caves and ravines on Bou Amdoun on 11 August 1933
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French Fourth Republic
The French Fourth Republic
French Fourth Republic
was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution. It was in many ways a revival of the Third Republic, which was in place before World War II, and suffered many of the same problems. France
France
adopted the constitution of the Fourth Republic on 13 October 1946. The Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France
France
and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after World War II, and played an important part in the development of the process of European integration
European integration
which changed the continent permanently. The greatest accomplishments of the Fourth Republic were in social reform and economic development
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South Vietnam
South Vietnam, officially the Republic
Republic
of Vietnam
Vietnam
(RVN, Vietnamese: Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that spanned the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic
Republic
of Vietnam, from 1955 to 1975. It received international recognition in 1949 as the "State of Vietnam" (as a self-governing entity in the French Empire), with a constitutional monarchy (1949–1955), and later as the " Republic
Republic
of Vietnam" (1955–1975). Its capital was Saigon
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "H
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Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
(/ˈhoʊ ˈtʃiː ˈmɪn/;[2] Vietnamese: [hò tɕǐ mīɲ] ( listen), Saigon: [hò tɕǐ mɨ̄n] ( listen); Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung,[3][4][5] also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist
Communist
revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam. Hồ was also Prime Minister (1945–55) and President (1945–69) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
(North Vietnam)
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Võ Nguyên Giáp
Nguyên Giáp (Vietnamese: [vɔ̌ˀ ŋʷīən zǎːp]; 25 August 1911 – 4 October 2013) was a Vietnamese general in the Vietnam
Vietnam
People's Army and a politician. Nguyên Giáp is considered one of the greatest military strategists of the 20th century.[1] He first grew to prominence during World War II, where he served as the military leader of the Viet Minh
Viet Minh
resistance against the Japanese occupation of Vietnam
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Phạm Văn Đồng
Phạm Văn Đồng
Phạm Văn Đồng
( listen; 1 March 1906 – 29 April 2000) was a Vietnamese politician who served as Prime Minister of North Vietnam from 1955 to 1976 and, following unification, as Prime Minister of Vietnam
Vietnam
from 1976 until he retired in 1987 under the rule of Lê Duẩn and Nguyễn Văn Linh.[1] He was considered one of Hồ Chí Minh's closest lieutenants.[2]Contents1 Early life 2 First Indochina
Indochina
War 3 Second Indochinese War 4 Later life 5 ReferencesEarly life[edit] According to an official report, Dong was born into a family of civil servants in Đức Tân village, Mộ Đức district, in Quang Ngai province on the central coast on 1 March 1906. In 1925 at the age of 18, he joined fellow students to stage a school sit-in to mourn the death of the famous patriotic scholar Phan Chu Trinh
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Trường Chinh
Trường Chinh
Trường Chinh
(Vietnamese: [tʂɨ̂əŋ tɕiŋ]; 9 February 1907, Xuân Trường District, Nam Định Province
Nam Định Province
– 30 September 1988, Hanoi) was a Vietnamese communist political leader and theoretician. From 1941 to 1957, he was Vietnam's second-ranked communist leader (after Ho Chi Minh). Following the death of Lê Duẩn in 1986, he was briefly Vietnam's top leader. Trường Chinh was considered the second President of Vietnam.[1] When he was President of the State Council of Vietnam
Vietnam
from 1981 to 1987 (equivalent to President of the State now)
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Souphanouvong
Prince Souphanouvong
Souphanouvong
(July 13, 1909 – January 9, 1995) was, along with his half-brother Prince Souvanna Phouma
Souvanna Phouma
and Prince Boun Oum
Boun Oum
of Champasak, one of the “Three Princes” who represented respectively the communist (pro-Vietnam), neutralist, and royalist political factions in Laos. He was the figurehead President of Laos
President of Laos
from December 1975 to August 1991. Souphanouvong
Souphanouvong
was one of the sons of Prince Bounkhong, the last vice-king of Luang Prabang. Unlike his half-brothers, Souvanna Phouma and Phetsarath Ratanavongsa, whose mothers were of royal birth, his mother was a commoner, Mom Kham Ouane. Educated in France
France
and Vietnam, he eventually became a supporter of Ho Chi Minh and joined the Indochinese communist movement
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Son Ngoc Minh
Son Ngoc Minh (1920–1972), also known as Achar Mean, was a Cambodian communist politician whose first notable career achievement was in 1950 when he was appointed the head of provisional revolutionary government of the United Issarak Front organized at Hong Dan. Among his Vietnamese friends, he was known as Phạm Văn Hua.[1] Biography[edit] Son Ngoc Minh was born in 1920 at Trà Vinh Province (present-day Vietnam) during the French colonial period[2] to an ethnic Khmer father and a Vietnamese mother.[3] He became a Buddhist lay preacher (Achar). During the Indochina War, he was recruited by Vietnamese communists (Viet Minh) to serve as President of a newly formed Cambodian People's Liberation Committee (CPLC) in Battambang. Minh had been born in a Khmer district of southern Vietnam of mixed Khmer-Vietnamese parentage, which meant he was the nearest the Vietnamese had to an authentic Khmer revolutionary
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French Far East Expeditionary Corps
The French Far East Expeditionary Corps
French Far East Expeditionary Corps
(French: Corps Expéditionnaire Français en Extrême-Orient, CEFEO) was a colonial expeditionary force of the French Union
French Union
Army that was initially formed in French Indochina
French Indochina
during 1945 during the Pacific War
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Jean-Étienne Valluy
Jean Etienne Valluy (15 May 1899 – 4 January 1970) was a French general.Contents1 Early life 2 Military career2.1 World War I 2.2 World War II 2.3 Indochina 2.4 Post Indochina3 ReferencesEarly life[edit] He was born in Rive-de-Gier, Loire, on 15 May 1899 to Claude (Claudius) Valluy and Jeanne, Adrienne Cossanges. Military career[edit] World War I[edit] In 1917 he entered the military academy of Saint-Cyr. He left as “Aspirant” in July 1918 and joined the Régiment d'Infanterie Coloniale du Maroc (RICM) in August 1918. He took part in the last four months of the First World War, where he was wounded in the neck and received the first of his citations which included the Croix de Guerre.[1]:168 World War II[edit] At the outbreak of the war, Valluy was a Major and operations officer with the XX1 Corps, captured by the Germans he was released in 1941 and by 1944 had become a Brigadier General
General
in the First Army
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Poland
Coordinates: 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska  (Polish)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Mazurek Dąbro
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Roger Blaizot
Roger Charles André Henri Blaizot (17 May 1891 – 21 March 1981)[2] was a French military leader, who commanded French forces during World War II and the First Indochina War.[1] Blaizot served in Indochina through the last two years of the World War II,[3] having been sent to command the Far East French Expeditionary Forces (Forces Francaises Extrême Orient) by Charles de Gaulle.[4] Following the war, Blaizot led a fifty-member staff group to Indochina as part of a cooperation between British Special Operations Executive agents of Force 136 and the French government to ensure French retention of South East Asia,[5] this having been approved by Lord Philip Mountbatten in 1943.[6] Blaizot then went on to command the French forces in Indochina from 1948 until 1949,[7] succeeding Jean-Étienne Valluy and being succeeded himself by Marcel Carpentier.[8] See also[edit]Far East French Expeditionary Forces C.L.I.Notes[edit]^ a b c Biography of: Blaizot, Roger-Charles-An
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