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Finno-Permic Languages
The Finno- Permic languages
Permic languages
(also Finno-Permian and Fenno-Permic/Permian) are a proposed subdivision of the Uralic languages which comprises the Baltic-Finnic languages, Sami languages, Mordvinic languages, Mari language, Permic languages, and likely a number of extinct languages
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Fennoscandia
Coordinates: 63°00′00″N 17°00′00″E / 63.0000°N 17.0000°E / 63.0000; 17.0000Map describing the Fennoscandian, Scandinavian and the Kola Peninsulas. Fennoscandia
Fennoscandia
(Finnish: Fennoskandia; Swedish: Fennoskandien; Norwegian: Fennoskandia; Russian: Фенноскандия Fennoskandiya), Fenno-Scandinavia, or the Fennoscandian Peninsula, is the geographical peninsula of the Nordic region
Nordic region
comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula.[1] It encompasses Finland, Norway
Norway
and Sweden,[2] as well as Murmansk Oblast, much of the Republic of Karelia, and parts of northern Leningrad Oblast
Leningrad Oblast
in Russia
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Veps Language
The Veps language
Veps language
(also known as Vepsian, natively as vepsän kel’, vepsän keli, or vepsä), spoken by the Vepsians
Vepsians
(also known as Veps), belongs to the Finnic group of the Uralic languages. Closely related to Finnish and Karelian, Veps is also written using Latin script. According to Soviet statistics, 12,500 people were self-designated ethnic Veps at the end of 1989. According to the location of the people, the language is divided into three main dialects: Northern Veps (at Lake Onega
Lake Onega
to the south of Petrozavodsk, to the north of the river Svir, including the former Veps National Volost), Central Veps (in the Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
region and Vologda Oblast), and Southern Veps (in the Saint Petersburg region). The Northern dialect seems the most distinct of the three; however, it is still mutually intelligible for speakers of the other two dialects
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Võro Language
Võro (Võro: võro kiil ' [ˈvɤro kʲiːlʲ], Estonian: võru keel)[2][3] is a language[4][5] belonging to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.[6] Traditionally, it has been considered a dialect of the South Estonian
South Estonian
dialect group of the Estonian language, but nowadays it has its own literary language[7] and is in search of official recognition as an autochthonous regional language of Estonia.[8][9] Võro has roughly 75,000[1] speakers (Võros) mostly in southeastern Estonia, in the eight parishes of the historical Võru County: Karula, Harglõ, Urvastõ, Rõugõ, Kanepi, Põlva, Räpinä and Vahtsõliina. These parishes are currently centred (due to redistricting) in Võru
Võru
and Põlva counties, with parts extending into Valga and Tartu
Tartu
counties
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Seto Dialect
Seto (seto kiil´;[3] Estonian: setu keel) is a dialect of South Estonian spoken by 12,549 people.[1] It is sometimes identified as a dialect of Võro, or the two are described as one language, Seto-Võro. However, the ethnic identity of Setos
Setos
(Setokõsõq) and Võros
Võros
(Võrokõsõq) is quite distinct; Setos
Setos
mostly inhabit the area near Estonia's southeastern border with Russia
Russia
in Setomaa, and are primarily Eastern Orthodox, while Võros
Võros
are Lutherans and live in Võru County. Language sample[edit] Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:Seto: Kõik inemiseq sünnüseq avvo ja õiguisi poolõst ütesugumaidsist. Näile om annõt mudsu ja süämetun'stus ja nä piät ütstõõsõga vele muudu läbi kjauma. Võro: Kõik inemiseq sünnüseq avvo ja õiguisi poolõst ütesugumaidsis
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Finnish Language
Finnish ( suomi (help·info), or suomen kieli [ˈsuomen ˈkieli]) is a Finnic language
Finnic language
spoken by the majority of the population in Finland
Finland
and by ethnic Finns
Finns
outside Finland. It is one of the two official languages of Finland
Finland
and an official minority language in Sweden. In Sweden, both standard Finnish and Meänkieli, a Finnish dialect, are spoken. The Kven language, a dialect of Finnish, is spoken in Northern Norway
Norway
by a minority group of Finnish descent. Finnish is a member of the Finnic language
Finnic language
family and is typologically between fusional and agglutinative languages
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Kven Language
The Kven language (kvääni or kväänin kieli; kainu or kainun kieli[3]) is a Finnic language spoken in northern Norway
Norway
by the Kven people. For political and historical reasons, it received the status of a minority language in 2005 within the framework of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Linguistically, however, it is seen as a mutually intelligible dialect of the Finnish language, and grouped together with the Peräpohjola dialects
Peräpohjola dialects
such as Meänkieli, spoken in Torne Valley in Sweden. Contrary to popular belief, the dialects spoken by the Kvens and Kainuu
Kainuu
peoples are not closely related
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Meänkieli Dialects
Meänkieli (literally "our language") is a group of distinct Finnish dialects spoken in the northernmost part of Sweden
Sweden
along the valley of the Torne River. In Sweden
Sweden
it is recognized as one of the country's five minority languages. Linguistically, Meänkieli consists of two dialect subgroups, the Torne Valley
Torne Valley
dialects (also spoken on the Finnish side of the Torne River) and the Gällivare
Gällivare
dialects, which both belong to the larger Peräpohjola dialect group (see Dialect
Dialect
chart).[3] For historical reasons it has the status of a minority language in Sweden. In modern Swedish the language is normally referred to officially as meänkieli, although colloquially an older name, tornedalsfinska ("Torne Valley Finnish"), is still commonly used
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Ingrian Language
Ingrian (also called Izhorian) is a nearly extinct Finnic language spoken by the (mainly Orthodox) Izhorians
Izhorians
of Ingria. It has approximately 120 speakers left, most of whom are aged. It should not be confused with the Southeastern dialects of the Finnish language that became the majority language of Ingria
Ingria
in the 17th century with the influx of Lutheran
Lutheran
Finnish immigrants (whose descendants, Ingrian Finns, are often referred to as Ingrians)
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Karelian Language
Karelian (karjala, karjal or kariela) is a Finnic language
Finnic language
spoken mainly in the Russian Republic of Karelia. Linguistically, Karelian is closely related to the Finnish dialects spoken in eastern Finland, and some Finnish linguists have even classified Karelian as a dialect of Finnish. Karelian is not to be confused with the Southeastern dialects of Finnish, sometimes referred to as karjalaismurteet ("Karelian dialects") in Finland.[5] There is no single standard Karelian language. Each writer writes in Karelian according to their own dialectal form. Three main written standards have been developed, for North Karelian, Olonets Karelian and Tver Karelian
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Livvi-Karelian Language
Livvi-Karelian[5] (Alternate names: Livvi, Livvikovian, Olonets, Southern Olonetsian, Karelian; Russian: ливвиковский язык)[5][6] is a Finnic language of the Uralic family[7] spoken by Olonets
Olonets
Karelians (self-appellation livvi, livgilaizet), traditionally inhabiting the area between Ladoga and Onega lakes, northward of Svir River. The name " Olonets
Olonets
Karelians" is derived from the territory inhabited, Olonets
Olonets
Krai, named after the town of Olonets, named after the Olonka River.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Ludic Language
Ludic, or Ludian, or Ludic Karelian (Luudi, Lyydi or lüüdi), is a Finnic language
Finnic language
in the Uralic language
Uralic language
family. It is transitional between the Olonets Karelian language and the Veps language.[1] It originated as a northern dialect of Veps transformed under heavy Karelian influence.[citation needed] It is spoken by 3,000 Karelians in the Republic of Karelia
Republic of Karelia
in Russia, near the northwestern shore of Lake Onega, including a few children.Contents1 Classification1.1 Dialects2 See also 3 Notes 4 Literature 5 External linksClassification[edit] In the Finnish research tradition, Ludic has been considered, on historical grounds, a transitional dialect area between Karelian and Veps, while in the Russian research tradition it is, on ethnographic grounds, normally considered a dialect of Karelian
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Livonian Language
Livonian (Livonian: līvõ kēļ or rāndakēļ) is a Finnic language. It is a dormant language, with its last native speaker having died in 2013.[1][6] It is closely related to Estonian. The native land of the Livonian people
Livonian people
is the Livonian Coast of the Gulf of Livonia, located in Latvia
Latvia
in the north of the Kurzeme peninsula. Some ethnic Livonians are learning or have learned Livonian in an attempt to revive it, but because ethnic Livonians are a small minority, opportunities to use Livonian are limited. The Estonian newspaper Eesti Päevaleht
Eesti Päevaleht
erroneously announced that Viktors Bertholds, who died on 28 February 2009, was the last native speaker who started the Latvian-language school as a monolingual.[7] Some other Livonians had argued, however, that there were some native speakers left,[8] including Viktors Bertholds' cousin, Grizelda Kristiņa
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Votic Language
Votic, or Votian (vađđa ceeli or maaceeli; also written vaďďa tšeeli, maatšeeli in old orthography[3]), is the language spoken by the Votes
Votes
of Ingria, belonging to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages. Votic is spoken only in Krakolye
Krakolye
and Luzhitsy, two villages in Kingiseppsky District, and is close to extinction. In 1989, there were 62 speakers left, the youngest born in 1938. In its 24 December 2005 issue, The Economist
The Economist
wrote that there are only approximately 20 speakers left.[4]Contents1 History 2 Dialects 3 Orthography 4 Phonetics and phonology4.1 Vowels 4.2 Consonants5 Grammar 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] Votic is one of numerous Finnic varieties known from Ingria, and generally considered the oldest of these
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Northeastern Coastal Estonian
The Northeastern coastal dialect (Estonian: kirderannikumurre) is a dialect (or dialect group) of the Estonian language. The coastal dialects of the Estonian language were spoken on the coastal strip of Estonia from Tallinn to river Narva. It has very few speakers left nowadays. Treating the Northeastern coastal dialect as a single unit dates back to Arnold Kask's classification of Estonian dialects from the year 1956).[1] According to some authors, the coastal dialects form one of the three major dialect groups of Estonian (the other two being the North Estonian dialect group and the South Estonian dialect group).[2][3]Contents1 Features 2 See also 3 Footnotes 4 References 5 External linksFeatures[edit] The characteristics of the dialect group are mostly shared with the Northern group of the Finnic languages.There are remnants of vowel harmony (räbälä 'rag' (genitive case), cf
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Akkala Sami Language
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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