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Finnish Awakening
The Awakening (Finnish: herännäisyys or körttiläisyys) is a Lutheran religious movement in Finland which has found followers in the provinces of Savo and Ostrobothnia. The origins of the movement are in the 18th century. It has functioned inside the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland throughout its existence. Formerly very pietist, the movement is currently considered within mainstream Finnish Lutheranism. Contents1 Main characteristics 2 History 3 Religious views 4 Religious traits and customs 5 In culture 6 Organization and activities 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksMain characteristics[edit] Theologically, the Awakening emphasized the greatness of God, the sinfulness of man, and the insignificance of human efforts towards salvation (see monergism). Today, the Awakening movement is widely known in Finland through an annual religious summer festival called Herättäjäjuhlat
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Seinäjoki
Seinäjoki
Seinäjoki
is a city located in Southern Ostrobothnia, Finland. Seinäjoki
Seinäjoki
originated around the Östermyra bruk iron and gunpowder factories founded in 1798. Seinäjoki
Seinäjoki
became a municipality in 1868, market town in 1931 and town in 1960. In 2005, the municipality of Peräseinäjoki
Peräseinäjoki
was merged into Seinäjoki, and in the beginning of 2009, the neighbouring municipalities of Nurmo
Nurmo
and Ylistaro
Ylistaro
were consolidated with Seinäjoki. The Town
Town
library, Lakeuden Risti Church
Lakeuden Risti Church
and central administrative buildings are designed by Alvar Aalto. The asteroid 1521 Seinäjoki bears the town's name. Seinäjoki
Seinäjoki
was historically called Östermyra in Swedish
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Sola Gratia
Sola gratia (Latin: by grace alone) is one of the Five solae propounded to summarise the Lutheran
Lutheran
and Reformed
Reformed
leaders' basic beliefs during the Protestant Reformation.[1] These Lutheran
Lutheran
and Reformed
Reformed
leaders believed that this emphasis was in contradistinction to the teaching of the Catholic Church, though it had explicitly affirmed the doctrine of sola gratia in the year 529 at the Council of Orange, which condemned the Pelagian heresy.[2] As a response to this misunderstanding, Catholic doctrine was further clarified in the Council of Trent
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Protestant Reformation
The Reformation, or, more fully, the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, was a schism in Western Christianity
Christianity
initiated by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
and continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Jacobus Arminius
Jacobus Arminius
and other Protestant Reformers
Protestant Reformers
in 16th-century Europe. It is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses
Ninety-five Theses
by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
in 1517 and lasted until the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648. Although there had been earlier attempts to reform the Catholic Church – such as those of Jan Hus, Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, and Girolamo Savonarola – Luther is widely acknowledged to have started the Reformation
Reformation
with the Ninety-five Theses
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Anointing Of The Sick
Anointing
Anointing
of the sick, known also by other names, is a form of religious anointing or "unction" (an older term with the same meaning) for the benefit of a sick person. It is practiced by many Christian churches and denominations. Anointing
Anointing
of the sick was a customary practice in many civilizations, including among the ancient Greeks and early Jewish communities
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Confession (Lutheran Church)
In the Lutheran Church, Confession (also called Holy Absolution) is the method given by Christ to the Church by which individual men and women may receive the forgiveness of sins; according to the Large Catechism, the "third sacrament" of Holy Absolution
Absolution
is properly viewed as an extension of Holy Baptism.[1]Contents1 Beliefs 2 Martin Luther
Martin Luther
on Confession 3 Form of Confession 4 ReferencesBeliefs[edit] The Lutheran Church practices "Confession and Absolution" [referred to as the Office of the Keys] with the emphasis on the absolution, which is God's word of forgiveness. Indeed, Lutherans highly regard Holy Absolution. They, like Roman Catholics, see James 5:16 and John 20:22-23 as biblical evidence for confession.[2] Confession and absolution is done in private to the pastor, called the "confessor" with the person confessing known as the "penitent"
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Baptism (Lutheran Church)
Baptism
Baptism
(from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian
Christian
sacrament of admission and adoption,[1] almost invariably with the use of water, into the Christian Church
Christian Church
generally.[2][3] The canonical Gospels report that Jesus
Jesus
was baptized[4]—a historical event to which a high degree of certainty can be assigned.[5][6][7] Baptism
Baptism
has been called a holy sacrament and an ordinance of Jesus Christ
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Homosexuality And Lutheranism
Lutheran viewpoints concerning homosexuality are diverse because there is no one worldwide body which represents all Lutherans. The Lutheran World Federation, a worldwide 'communion of churches' and the largest global body of Lutherans, contains member churches on both sides of the issue
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Universal Priesthood
The universal priesthood or the priesthood of all believers is a foundational concept of Christianity
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Churches Militant, Penitent, And Triumphant
In Christian
Christian
theology, the Christian Church
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Criticism Of Protestantism
Criticism of Protestantism
Protestantism
covers critiques and questions raised about Protestantism, the movement based on Martin Luther's Reformation principles of 1517
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Luther Rose
The Luther seal or Luther rose
Luther rose
is a widely recognized symbol for Lutheranism. It was the seal that was designed for Martin Luther
Martin Luther
at the behest of John Frederick of Saxony in 1530, while Luther was staying at the Coburg
Coburg
Fortress during the Diet of Augsburg. Lazarus Spengler, to whom Luther wrote his interpretation below, sent Luther a drawing of this seal
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Athanasian Creed
The Athanasian Creed, also known as Pseudo-Athanasian Creed
Creed
or Quicunque Vult (also Quicumque Vult), is a Christian statement of belief focused on Trinitarian doctrine and Christology. The Latin
Latin
name of the creed, Quicunque vult, is taken from the opening words, "Whosoever wishes". The creed has been used by Christian churches since the sixth century. It is the first creed in which the equality of the three persons of the Trinity
Trinity
is explicitly stated
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Nicene Creed
The Nicene Creed
Creed
(Greek: Σύμβολον τῆς Νικαίας or, τῆς πίστεως, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy. It is called Nicene /ˈnaɪsiːn/ because it was originally adopted in the city of Nicaea (present day İznik, Turkey) by the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
in 325.[1] In 381, it was amended at the First Council of Constantinople, and the amended form is referred to as the Nicene or the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed. The Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian churches use this profession of faith with the verbs in the original plural ("we believe") form, but the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic churches convert those verbs to the singular ("I believe")
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Smalcald Articles
The Smalcald Articles
Smalcald Articles
or Schmalkald Articles (German: Schmalkaldische Artikel) are a summary of Lutheran doctrine, written by Martin Luther in 1537 for a meeting of the Schmalkaldic League
Schmalkaldic League
in preparation for an intended ecumenical Council of the Church.Contents1 History 2 First article 3 Translations 4 Bibliography 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Luther's patron, Elector John Frederick of Saxony, asked him to prepare these articles for the Schmalkaldic League's meeting in 1537, held again in Schmalkalden
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John Campanius
John Campanius
John Campanius
(Swedish: Johannes Jonæ Holmiensis Campanius; August 15, 1601 – September 17, 1683), also known as John Campanius
John Campanius
Holm, was a Swedish Lutheran priest assigned to the New Sweden
Sweden
colony.[1]Contents1 Background 2 New Sweden 3 John Campanius
John Campanius
Holm Award 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksBackground[edit] John Campanius
John Campanius
was born in Stockholm
Stockholm
and attended Uppsala
Uppsala
University, where he studied theology and graduated in 1633. He was ordained into the Lutheran ministry during 1633. He served as the chaplain to the Swedish delegation in Russia
Russia
in 1634. He then moved to Norrtälje, where he served as a schoolmaster beginning in 1636
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