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Filippo Brunelleschi
Filippo Brunelleschi
Filippo Brunelleschi
(Italian: [fiˈlippo brunelˈleski]; 1377 – April 15, 1446) was an Italian designer and a key figure in architecture, recognised to be the first modern engineer, planner and sole construction supervisor.[4] He was one of the founding fathers of the Renaissance. He is generally well known for developing a technique for linear perspective in art and for building the dome of the Florence
Florence
Cathedral. Heavily dependent on mirrors and geometry, to "reinforce Christian spiritual reality", his formulation of linear perspective governed pictorial depiction of space until the late 19th century.[5][6] It also had the most profound – and quite unanticipated – influence on the rise of modern science.[6] His accomplishments also include other architectural works, sculpture, mathematics, engineering, and ship design
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San Felice, Florence
The Chiesa di San Felice (Church of St Felix) is a Roman Catholic church in Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy. It is located on the south bank of the River Arno, just west of the Pitti Palace. It is predominantly Gothic, but has a Renaissance façade by Michelozzo, added in 1457. Over the high altar is a large Crucifix attributed to Giotto or his school. A church at the site was built about the 10th-century outside one of the gates of early walls of Florence. It first belonged to the Monastery of San Silvestro of Nonantola, and in 1413 it was transferred to the Camaldolese Order. In 1552, it became property of the Dominican nuns of San Pietro Martire. The church provided a sanctuary to women fleeing from abusive husbands. The interior had a Madonna with Child and Saints by Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. Another chapel has a fresco by Giovanni da San Giovanni, depicting San Felice reviving St Massimo; the angels gathering the grapes in the painting are by Baldassare Franceschini
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Baths Of Diocletian
The Baths of Diocletian
Diocletian
(Latin: Thermae
Thermae
Diocletiani, Italian: Terme di Diocleziano) were public baths in Rome, in what is now Italy. Named after emperor Diocletian
Diocletian
and built from 298 to 306, they were the largest of the imperial baths. The project was originally commissioned by Maximian
Maximian
upon his return to Rome
Rome
in the autumn of 298 and was continued after his and Diocletian's abdication under Constantius, father of Constantine.[1]Contents1 Location 2 History 3 Description3.1 The frigidarium 3.2 The caldarium 3.3 Presence of libraries 3.4 Architectural styles4 Legacy 5 Present day 6 See also 7 Sources 8 References 9 External linksLocation[edit] The baths occupy the high-ground on the northeast summit of the Viminal, the smallest of the Seven hills of Rome, just inside the Agger of the Servian Wall
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Hoop Stress
In mechanics, a cylinder stress is a stress distribution with rotational symmetry; that is, which remains unchanged if the stressed object is rotated about some fixed axis. Cylinder stress patterns include:Circumferential stress or hoop stress, a normal stress in the tangential (azimuth) direction; Axial stress, a normal stress parallel to the axis of cylindrical symmetry; Radial stress, a stress in directions coplanar with but perpendicular to the symmetry axis.The classical example (and namesake) of hoop stress is the tension applied to the iron bands, or hoops, of a wooden barrel. In a straight, closed pipe, any force applied to the cylindrical pipe wall by a pressure differential will ultimately give rise to hoop stresses. Similarly, if this pipe has flat end caps, any force applied to them by static pressure will induce a perpendicular axial stress on the same pipe wall
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Mortar (masonry)
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls. In its broadest sense mortar includes pitch, asphalt, and soft mud or clay, such as used between mud bricks. Mortar comes from Latin mortarium meaning crushed. Cement
Cement
mortar becomes hard when it cures, resulting in a rigid aggregate structure; however the mortar is intended to be weaker than the building blocks and the sacrificial element in the masonry, because the mortar is easier and less expensive to repair than the building blocks. Mortars are typically made from a mixture of sand, a binder, and water. The most common binder since the early 20th century is Portland cement
Portland cement
but the ancient binder lime mortar is still used in some new construction
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Classical Antiquity
Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
(also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia. Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD)
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Marble
Marble
Marble
is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Marble
Marble
may be foliated. In geology the term "marble" refers to metamorphosed limestone, but its use in stonemasonry more broadly encompasses unmetamorphosed limestone.[1] Marble
Marble
is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material.Contents1 Etymology 2 Physical origins 3 Types 4 Uses4.1 Sculpture 4.2 Construction
Construction
marble5 Production5.1 Occupational safety5.1.1 United States6 Microbial degradation 7 Cultural associations 8 Artificial marble 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksEtymologyCarlo Franzoni's sculptural marble chariot clock depicting Clio, the Greek muse of history. Marble
Marble
wall of Ruskeala
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Loggia
A loggia ( /ˈlɒdʒiə/ or /ˈloʊdʒə/; Italian: [ˈlɔddʒa]) is an architectural feature which is a covered exterior gallery or corridor usually on an upper level, or sometimes ground level. The outer wall is open to the elements, usually supported by a series of columns or arches. Loggias can be located either on the front or side of a building and are not meant for entrance but as an out-of-door sitting room.[1][2][3] From the early Middle Ages, nearly every Italian comune had an open arched loggia in its main square which served as a "symbol of communal justice and government and as a stage for civic ceremony".[4]Contents1 Definition of the Roman loggia1.1 Examples2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksDefinition of the Roman loggia[edit] The main difference between a loggia and a portico is the role within the functional layout of the building
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Ancient Rome
In historiography, ancient Rome
Rome
is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire.[1] The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire.[2] The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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Humanism
Humanism
Humanism
is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition. The meaning of the term humanism has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with it.[1] The term was coined by theologian Friedrich Niethammer at the beginning of the 19th century to refer to a system of education based on the study of classical literature ("classical humanism")
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Goldsmith
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Historically, goldsmiths also have made silverware, platters, goblets, decorative and serviceable utensils, ceremonial or religious items, and rarely using Kintsugi,[1] but the rising prices of precious metals have curtailed the making of such items to a large degree. Goldsmiths must be skilled in forming metal through filing, soldering, sawing, forging, casting, and polishing metal. The trade has very often included jewellery-making skills, as well as the very similar skills of the silversmith
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Exedra
In architecture, an exedra[1] is a semicircular recess or plinth, often crowned by a semi-dome, which is sometimes set into a building's façade or is free-standing. The original Greek sense (ἐξέδρα, a seat out of doors) was applied to a room that opened onto a stoa, ringed with curved high-backed stone benches, a suitable place for a philosophical or other conversation. An exedra may also be expressed by a curved break in a colonnade, perhaps with a semicircular seat. The exedra would typically have an apsidal podium that supported the stone running bench. The free-standing (open air) exedra, often originally supporting bronze portrait statues[2] is a familiar type of Hellenistic structure,[3] characteristically sited along sacred ways or in open places in sanctuaries, such as at Delos
Delos
or Epidaurus; sometimes Hellenistic exedrae were built in relation to a city's agora, as at Priene
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Buttresses
A buttress is an architectural structure built against or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall.[1] Buttresses are fairly common on more ancient buildings, as a means of providing support to act against the lateral (sideways) forces arising out of the roof structures that lack adequate bracing. The term counterfort can be synonymous with buttress,[2] and is often used when referring to dams, retaining walls and other structures holding back earth. Early examples of buttresses are found on the Eanna
Eanna
Temple (ancient Uruk), dating to as early as the 4th millennium BCE.[citation needed]Contents1 Terminology 2 Gallery 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksTerminology[edit] In addition to flying and ordinary buttresses, brick and masonry buttresses that support wall corners can be classified according to their ground plan
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Sacrifice Of Isaac
The Binding of Isaac (Hebrew: עֲקֵידַת יִצְחַק‎ Aqedat Yitzhaq, in Hebrew also simply "The Binding", הָעֲקֵידָה Ha-Aqedah),[1][2] is a story from the Hebrew Bible found in Genesis 22. In the biblical narrative, God asks Abraham to sacrifice his son, Isaac, on Moriah. Abraham begins to comply, when a messenger from God interrupts him
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Bronze
Bronze
Bronze
is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon. These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability. The archeological period where bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze
Bronze
Age. The beginning of the Bronze Age in Western Eurasia
Eurasia
and South Asia
Asia
is conventionally dated to the mid-4th millennium BC, and to the early 2nd millennium BC in China;[1] everywhere it gradually spread across regions
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Patents
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention. An invention is a solution to a specific technological problem and is a product or a process.[1]:17 Patents are a form of intellectual property. The procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a granted patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. A patent may include many claims, each of which defines a specific property right. These claims must meet relevant patentability requirements, such as novelty, usefulness, and non-obviousness
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