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Fibrocartilage
White fibrocartilage consists of a mixture of white fibrous tissue and cartilaginous tissue in various proportions. It owes its flexibility and toughness to the former of these constituents, and its elasticity to the latter. It is the only type of cartilage that contains type I collagen in addition to the normal type II. Fibrocartilage
Fibrocartilage
is found in the pubic symphysis, the anulus fibrosus of intervertebral discs, menisci, the triangular fibrocartilage and the TMJ
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Gray's Anatomy
Gray's Anatomy
Gray's Anatomy
is an English-language textbook of human anatomy originally written by Henry Gray
Henry Gray
and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter. Earlier editions were called Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical and Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Applied, but the book's name is commonly shortened to, and later editions are titled, Gray's Anatomy. The book is widely regarded as an extremely influential work on the subject, and has continued to be revised and republished from its initial publication in 1858 to the present day
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Micrograph
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. This is opposed to a macrographic image, which is at a scale that is visible to the naked eye. Micrography
Micrography
is the practice or art of using microscopes to make photographs. A micrograph contains extensive details that form the features of a microstructure
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Tendon
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. Tendons are similar to ligaments; both are made of collagen. Ligaments join one bone to another bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone.Contents1 Structure 2 Functions2.1 Mechanics 2.2 Healing2.2.1 Effects of activity on healing3 Society and culture3.1 Culinary uses4 Clinical significance4.1 Injury5 Other animals 6 See also 7 ReferencesStructure[edit] Histologically, tendons consist of dense regular connective tissue fascicles encased in dense irregular connective tissue sheaths. Normal healthy tendons are composed mostly of parallel arrays of collagen fibers closely packed together. They are anchored to bone by Sharpey's fibres
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HPS Stain
In histology, the HPS stain, or hematoxylin phloxine saffron stain, is a way of marking tissues. HPS is similar to H&E, the standard bearer in histology. However, it differentiates between the most common connective tissue (collagen is yellow[1]) and muscle and cytoplasm are both pink, unlike an H&E stain, which stains connective tissue, muscle and cytoplasm all pink. HPS stained sections are more expensive than H&E stained sections, primarily due to the cost of saffron. See also[edit]HistopathologyReferences[edit]^ Saffron. polysciences.com
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Public Domain
The legal term public domain refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired,[1] have been forfeited,[2] have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable.[3] For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven, and most early silent films are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired.[1] Some works are not covered by copyright, and are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes,[4] and all computer software created prior to 1974.[5] Other works are actively dedicated
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Coronal Section
A coronal plane (also known as the frontal plane) is any vertical plane that divides the body into ventral and dorsal (belly and back) sections. It is one of the three main planes of the body used to describe the location of body parts in relation to each other.Contents1 Details 2 Etymology 3 Additional images 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDetails[edit] The coronal plane is an example of a longitudinal plane, because it is perpendicular to the transverse plane. For a human, the mid-coronal plane would transect a standing body into two halves (front and back, or anterior and posterior) in an imaginary line that cuts through both shoulders
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PubMed Central
PubMed
PubMed
Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository
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Relaxin
Relaxin
Relaxin
is a protein hormone of about 6000 Da[1] first described in 1926 by Frederick Hisaw.[2][3] The relaxin-like peptide family belongs in the insulin superfamily and consists of 7 peptides of high structural but low sequence similarity; relaxin-1 (RLN1), 2 (RLN2) and 3 (RLN3), and the insulin-like (INSL) peptides, INSL3, INSL4, INSL5
INSL5
and INSL6
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Type II Collagen
Type II collagen is the basis for articular cartilage and hyaline cartilage, formed by homotrimers of collagen, type II, alpha 1 chains. It makes up 50% of all protein in cartilage and 85-90% of collagen of articular cartilage. Type II collagen does form fibrils. This fibrillar network of collagen allows cartilage to entrap the proteoglycan aggregate as well as provide tensile strength to the tissue. Oral administration of native collagen type II induces oral tolerance to pathological immune responses and may be useful in arthritis.[1][2] See also[edit]Type I collagen Collagen, type III, alpha 1References[edit]^ Park KS, Park MJ, Cho ML, Kwok SK, Ju JH, Ko HJ, Park SH, Kim HY (2009). " Type II collagen oral tolerance; mechanism and role in collagen-induced arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis". Modern Rheumatology. 19 (6): 581–9
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Collagen
Collagen
Collagen
/ˈkɒlədʒɪn/ is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies. As the main component of connective tissue, it is the most abundant protein in mammals,[1] making up from 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. Collagen
Collagen
consists of amino acids wound together to form triple-helices to form of elongated fibrils.[2] It is mostly found in fibrous tissues such as tendons, ligaments and skin. Depending upon the degree of mineralization, collagen tissues may be rigid (bone), compliant (tendon), or have a gradient from rigid to compliant (cartilage). It is also abundant in corneas, cartilage, bones, blood vessels, the gut, intervertebral discs, and the dentin in teeth.[3] In muscle tissue, it serves as a major component of the endomysium
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Type I Collagen
Type I collagen is the most abundant collagen of the human body which forms large, eosinophilic fibers known as collagen fibers. It is present in scar tissue, the end product when tissue heals by repair, as well as tendons, ligaments, the endomysium of myofibrils, the organic part of bone, the dermis, the dentin and organ capsules.Contents1 Formation 2 Clinical significance 3 See also 4 External links 5 ReferencesFormation[edit] The COL1A1
COL1A1
gene produces the pro-alpha1(I) chain. This chain combines with another pro-alpha1(I) chain and also with a pro-alpha2(I) chain (produced by the COL1A2
COL1A2
gene) to make a molecule of type I procollagen. These triple-stranded, rope-like procollagen molecules must be processed by enzymes outside the cell. Once these molecules are processed, they arrange themselves into long, thin fibrils that cross-link to one another in the spaces around cells
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Elasticity (physics)
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed. Solid objects will deform when adequate forces are applied on them. If the material is elastic, the object will return to its initial shape and size when these forces are removed. The physical reasons for elastic behavior can be quite different for different materials. In metals, the atomic lattice changes size and shape when forces are applied (energy is added to the system). When forces are removed, the lattice goes back to the original lower energy state. For rubbers and other polymers, elasticity is caused by the stretching of polymer chains when forces are applied. Perfect elasticity is an approximation of the real world. The most elastic body in modern science found is quartz fibre[citation needed] which is not even a perfect elastic body
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Anatomical Terminology
Anatomical terminology
Anatomical terminology
is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists, zoologists, and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology
Anatomical terminology
uses many unique terms, suffixes, and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Latin. These terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise reducing ambiguity and errors. Also, since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less likely to change, and less likely to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand; and could be on the palm-side or back-side of the arm
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