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Fezouata Formation
The Upper and Lower Fezouata Formations of Morocco
Morocco
are Burgess shale-type deposits dating to the Early Ordovician, filling an important preservational window between the common Cambrian Lagerstätten and the Late Ordovician
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Geochronology
Geochronology
Geochronology
is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves. Absolute geochronology can be accomplished through radioactive isotopes, whereas relative geochronology is provided by tools such as palaeomagnetism and stable isotope ratios. By combining multiple geochronological (and biostratigraphic) indicators the precision of the recovered age can be improved. Geochronology
Geochronology
is different in application from biostratigraphy, which is the science of assigning sedimentary rocks to a known geological period via describing, cataloguing and comparing fossil floral and faunal assemblages. Biostratigraphy
Biostratigraphy
does not directly provide an absolute age determination of a rock, but merely places it within an interval of time at which that fossil assemblage is known to have coexisted
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Naraoia
Naraoia is a genus of small to average size (about 2-4½ cm long) marine arthropods within the family Naraoiidae, that lived from the early Cambrian to the late Silurian period. The species are characterized by a large alimentary system and sideways oriented antennas.Contents1 Etymology 2 History of the classification 3 Description 4 Distribution 5 Ecology 6 Habitat 7 Key to the species 8 References 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The name is derived from Narao, the name of a group of small lakes in Cataract Brook canyon, above Hector on the Canadian Pacific Railway, British Columbia, Canada.[1] History of the classification[edit] When the fossil was first discovered in Canada's Burgess Shale, it was believed to be a crustacean, such was the difference between this and other trilobites. Its continuous shield hid most of its structure, interfering with proper classification. When Harry B
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Graptolite
†Graptoloidea & †Dendroidea Graptolithina
Graptolithina
is a subclass of the class Pterobranchia, the members of which are known as graptolites. These organisms are colonial animals known chiefly as fossils from the Middle Cambrian
Cambrian
(Series 3, Stage 5) through the Lower Carboniferous
Carboniferous
(Mississippian).[3] A possible early graptolite, Chaunograptus, is known from the Middle Cambrian.[4] One analysis suggests that the pterobranch Rhabdopleura
Rhabdopleura
represents extant graptolites.[2] Studies on the tubarium of fossil and living graptolites showed similarities in the basic fusellar construction and it is considered that the group most probably evolved from a Rhabdopleura-like ancestor.[5] The name graptolite comes from the Greek graptos meaning "written", and lithos meaning "rock", as many graptolite fossils resemble hieroglyphs written on the rock
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Echinoderm
Homalozoa
Homalozoa
† Gill & Caster, 1960 Homostelea
Homostelea
† Homoiostelea †
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Demosponges
Heteroscleromorpha Keratosa Verongimorpha †TakakkawiaDemospongiae is the most diverse class in the phylum Porifera. They include 90% of all species of sponges with nearly 7,000 species worldwide (World Porifera
Porifera
Database).[1] They are predominantly leuconoid in structure. Their "skeletons" are made of spicules consisting of fibers of the protein spongin, the mineral silica, or both. Where spicules of silica are present, they have a different shape from those in the otherwise similar glass sponges.[2] The many diverse orders in this class include all of the large sponges. Most are marine dwellers, but one order (Spongillida) live in freshwater environments
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Lobopod
Crown-group EuarthropodaThe lobopodians, members of the informal group Lobopodia
Lobopodia
Snodgrass 1938[2] (from the Greek, meaning "blunt feet") are worm-like taxa with stubby legs. The scope of the Lobopodian concept varies from author to author. Its most limited sense refers to a suite of mainly Cambrian
Cambrian
panarthropod taxa with flexible non-segmented limbs – for example Aysheaia, Hallucigenia
Hallucigenia
and Xenusion. A broader definition of lobopodia would also incorporate the extant phyla Onychophora
Onychophora
and Tardigrada
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Barnacle
Acrothoracica Thoracica RhizocephalaSynonymsThyrostraca, Cirrhopoda (meaning "curl-footed"), Cirrhipoda, and Cirrhipedia.Barnacles attached to the ventral pleats of a humpback whale calfA barnacle is a type of arthropod constituting the infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence related to crabs and lobsters. Barnacles are exclusively marine, and tend to live in shallow and tidal waters, typically in erosive settings. They are sessile (nonmotile) suspension feeders, and have two nektonic (active swimming) larval stages
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Annelid
Class Polychaeta
Polychaeta
(paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata
Clitellata
(see below)     Oligochaeta
Oligochaeta
– earthworms, etc.    Branchiobdellida     Hirudinea
Hirudinea
– leeches Class Echiura
Echiura
(previously a separate phylum) Class Machaeridia†The annelids (Annelida, from Latin
Latin
anellus, "little ring"),[2][a] also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches. The species exist in and have adapted to various ecologies – some in marine environments as distinct as tidal zones and hydrothermal vents, others in fresh water, and yet others in moist terrestrial environments. The annelids are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomate, invertebrate organisms
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Anomalocaridid
See text.The Anomalocaridids[derivation 1] comprise a group of very early marine animals known primarily from fossils[3] found in Cambrian deposits in China, United States, Canada, Poland
Poland
and Australia. They were long thought to be restricted to this Cambrian
Cambrian
time range, but the discovery of large Ordovician
Ordovician
specimens has extended this somewhat.[4] The later Devonian
Devonian
Schinderhannes shows many anomalocaridid features
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Halkieriid
See text.The halkieriids are a group of fossil organisms from the Lower to Middle Cambrian. Their eponymous genus is Halkieria
Halkieria
/hælˈkɪəriə/, which has been found on almost every continent in Lower to Mid Cambrian
Cambrian
deposits, forming a large component of the small shelly fossil assemblages. The best known species is Halkieria
Halkieria
evangelista, from the North Greenland
Greenland
Sirius Passet Lagerstätte, in which complete specimens were collected on an expedition in 1989. The fossils were described by Simon Conway Morris and John Peel in a short paper in 1990 in the journal Nature
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Skania
Skania is a Middle Cambrian fossil arthropod that is closely related to the Early Cambrian Primicaris larvaformis from the Chengjiang Biota, China. It bears a superficial resemblance to the Ediacaran organism Parvancorina.[1] A single specimens of Skania are known from the Greater Phyllopod bed, where they comprise < 0.01% of the community.[2] External links[edit]"Skania fragilis". Burgess Shale Fossil Gallery. Virtual Museum of Canada. 2011. References[edit]^ Lin, J. P.; Gon, S. M.; Gehling, J. G.; Babcock, L. E.; Zhao, Y. L.; Zhang, X. L.; Hu, S. X.; Yuan, J. L.; Yu, M. Y.; Peng, J. (2006). "A Parvancorina-like arthropod from the Cambrian of South China". Historical Biology. 18 (1): 33–45. doi:10.1080/08912960500508689.  ^ Caron, Jean-Bernard; Jackson, Donald A. (October 2006). "Taphonomy of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale". PALAIOS. 21 (5): 451–65
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Mitrate
Mitrates are an extinct group of stem group echinoderms, which may be closely related to the hemichordates.Contents1 Morphology 2 Behaviour 3 Notes 4 ReferencesMorphology[edit] The organisms were a few millimetres long.[1] Like the echinoderms, they are covered in armour plates, each of which comprises a single crystal of calcite. However, this is arguably the only feature they share with the latter group; they don't have, for example, fivefold symmetry or a water vascular system.[1] Their heads had two sides; one, flat, was covered with large "pavement-like"[1] plates, the other, convex, bore smaller plates.[1] Their tails were long and segmented, resembling the stalk of a crinoid or the arm of a brittlestar.[1] At the opposite end was a hole which may have been mouth or anus - or both.[1] They also bear features reminiscent of pharyngeal slits,[2] a character lost in other echinoderms but present in hemichordates,[1] causing R.P.S
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Cheloniellid
See text for listCheloniellida is an unranked taxon (usually referred to as a class or order) of extinct Paleozoic arthropods, currently (Dunlop & Selden, 1997; Dunlop, 2002) thought to be a member of the Arachnomorpha and related to the Chelicerata and the Trilobita, while not included in any of those
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