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Fez
The fez is a felt headdress of two types: either in the shape of a close-fitting skull cap, or a short cylindrical peakless hat made of kilim fabric, both usually red, and sometimes with a tassel attached to the top. It is named after the Moroccan city Fez, the capital of the Kingdom of Morocco
Kingdom of Morocco
until 1927
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Colonial Troops
Colonial troops
Colonial troops
or colonial army refers to various military units recruited from, or used as garrison troops in, colonial territories.Contents1 Colonial background 2 Origins 3 Basis of recruitment 4 Settler militia 5 Advantages of colonial troops 6 Disadvantages 7 Use outside areas of origin 8 United States 9 Symbolism 10 End of empires 11 Examples 12 References 13 Further reading 14 See alsoColonial background[edit] Such colonies may lie overseas or in areas dominated by neighbouring land powers such as China or Russia. Colonial troops
Colonial troops
have been used by Imperial powers whether ancient (such as Carthage[1] and Rome), or modern (such as Great Britain, France, Netherlands, Denmark, the United States, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Portugal). Sometimes they have been recruited under local leaders, as auxiliaries, at other times directly under pay and officers from the colonial power
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Sun Helmet
The pith helmet (Spanish: salacot) also known as the safari helmet, sun helmet, topee, sola topee or topi[a] is a lightweight cloth-covered helmet made of pith material. Pith
Pith
helmets were often worn by European travelers and explorers, in the varying climates found in Africa, Southeast Asia, as well as the tropics, but have also been used in many other contexts
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Millet (Ottoman Empire)
In the Ottoman Empire, a millet was a separate court of law pertaining to "personal law" under which a confessional community (a group abiding by the laws of Muslim Sharia, Christian Canon law, or Jewish Halakha) was allowed to rule itself under its own laws. Despite frequently being referred to as a "system", before the nineteenth century the organization of what are now retrospectively called millets in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was far from systematic. Rather, non-Muslims were simply given a significant degree of autonomy within their own community, without an overarching structure for the 'millet' as a whole
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Tanzimat
The Tanzimât (Turkish: [tɑnziˈmɑːt]; Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات‎, translit. Tanẓīmāt, lit. 'reorganization') was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.[1] The Tanzimat
Tanzimat
era began with the purpose, not of radical transformation, but of modernization, desiring to consolidate the social and political foundations of the Ottoman Empire.[2] It was characterised by various attempts to modernise the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and to secure its territorial integrity against internal nationalist movements and external aggressive powers
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Greco-Turkish War (1897)
Ottoman military victorySmall parts of Thessaly
Thessaly
ceded to the Ottoman Empire[1]Greek diplomatic victoryAutonomy of Crete
Crete
through the intervention of the
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Constantinople
Κωνσταντινούπολις (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin)Map of ConstantinopleShown within Asia
Asia
MinorAlternate name Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsarigrad (Slavic), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopolis ("the Great City")Location Istanbul, Istanbul
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Ottoman Albania
Albania
Albania
was ruled by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in different periods from 1480 to 1912. Ottoman rule began in 1479, after the fall of Shkodra. The Albanians
Albanians
revolted again in 1481 but the Ottomans finally controlled Albania
Albania
by 1488. The Ottomans had previously ruled some Albanian regions after the Battle of Savra
Battle of Savra
in 1385. The Ottomans placed garrisons throughout southern Albania
Albania
by 1418 and established formal jurisdiction in central Albania
Albania
by 1431
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Sheepskin
Sheepskin
Sheepskin
is the hide of a sheep, sometimes also called lambskin. Unlike common leather, sheepskin is tanned with the fleece intact, as in a pelt.[1]Contents1 Uses 2 Quality 3 Mouton fur 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksUses[edit]Sheepskin-lined boots Sheepskin
Sheepskin
is used to produce sheepskin leather products and soft wool-lined clothing or coverings, including gloves, hats, slippers, footstools, automotive seat covers, baby and invalid rugs and pelts. Sheepskin
Sheepskin
numnahs, saddle pads, saddle seat covers, sheepskin horse boots, tack linings and girth tubes are also made and used in equestrianism.[2][3] The fleece of sheepskin has excellent insulating properties and it is also resistant to flame and static electricity
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Khaki
Khaki
Khaki
(UK: /ˈkɑːkiː/, Canada and US: /ˈkækiː/) is a color, a light shade of yellow-brown. Khaki
Khaki
has been used by many armies around the world for uniforms, including camouflage
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Nizam-ı Cedid
The Nizam-i Djedid
Nizam-i Djedid
(Ottoman Turkish: نظام جديد, Niẓām-ı Cedīd; "New Order") was a series of reforms carried out by the Ottoman Sultan Selim III
Selim III
during the late 18th and early 19th centuries in a drive to catch up militarily and politically with the Western Powers. The New Order regime was launched by Selim III
Selim III
and a coalition of reformers. The central objective was the creation professional army along European lines and a private treasury to finance military spending, as well as other administrative reforms.The age of the New Order can be generally said to have lasted from 1789 - 1807, ending with the deposition of Selim III
Selim III
by a Janissary coup. While the term “New Order” eventually came to encompass all of Selim III’s reforms, the name was used contemporaneously to refer only to the reform’s central innovation: the New Order Army
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Austro-Hungarian Annexation Of Bosnia-Herzegovina
The Bosnian crisis
Bosnian crisis
of 1908–09, also known as the Annexation
Annexation
crisis or the First Balkan Crisis, erupted when on 8 October 1908, Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, territories formally within the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire. This unilateral action—timed to coincide with Bulgaria's declaration of independence (5 October) from the Ottoman Empire—sparked protestations from all the Great Powers
Great Powers
and Austria-Hungary's Balkan neighbours, Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro. In April 1909 the Treaty of Berlin was amended to reflect the fait accompli and bring the crisis to an end. The crisis permanently damaged relations between Austria-Hungary on one hand and Serbia, Italy and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
on the other
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Boycott
A boycott is an act of voluntary and intentional abstention from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for social, political, or environmental reasons. The purpose of a boycott is to inflict some economic loss on the target, or to indicate a moral outrage, to try to compel the target to alter an objectionable behavior. Sometimes, a boycott can be a form of consumer activism, sometimes called moral purchasing. When a similar practice is legislated by a national government, it is known as a sanction.Contents1 Etymology 2 Notable boycotts 3 Application and uses 4 Collective behavior 5 Legality5.1 United States6 See also 7 Notes 8 ReferencesEtymology[edit]Vanity Fair caricature of Charles C
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Orientalism
Orientalism
Orientalism
is a term that is used by art historians, literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world). These depictions are usually done by writers, designers and artists from the West. In particular, Orientalist painting, depicting more specifically "the Middle East",[1] was one of the many specialisms of 19th-century academic art, and the literature of Western countries took a similar interest in Oriental themes. Since the publication of Edward Said's Orientalism
Orientalism
in 1978, much academic discourse has begun to use the term "Orientalism" to refer to a general patronizing Western attitude towards Middle Eastern, Asian and North African societies
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Turkish Army
List of wars involving TurkeyWar of Independence Sheikh Said Rebellion Ararat Rebellion Dersim Rebellion Korean War Invasion of Cyprus Turkey-PKK Conflict Operation Allied Force War in Afghanistan Operation Sun Iraq
Iraq
Cross-border Raids Syrian Border Clashes Operation Shah Euphrates Turkey-PKK conflict Operation Euphrates Shield Operation Olive BranchWebsite kkk.tsk.tr/CommandersCommander-in-Chief President Recep Tayyip ErdoğanMinister of National Defence Minister Nurettin CanikliChief of the General
General
Staff General
General
Hulusi AkarCommander General
General
Yaşar GülerVice Commander General
General
İsmail Metin TemelChief of Staff Lt
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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