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Fever
FEVER, also known as PYREXIA and FEBRILE RESPONSE, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point . There is not a single agreed-upon upper limit for normal temperature with sources using values between 37.5 and 38.3 °C (99.5 and 100.9 °F). The increase in set-point triggers increased muscle contractions and causes a feeling of cold . This results in greater heat production and efforts to conserve heat. When the set-point temperature returns to normal, a person feels hot, becomes flushed , and may begin to sweat . Rarely a fever may trigger a febrile seizure . This is more common in young children. Fevers do not typically go higher than 41 to 42 °C (105.8 to 107.6 °F). A fever can be caused by many medical conditions ranging from not serious to potentially serious
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Anus
The ANUS (from Latin
Latin
anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth. Its function is to control the expulsion of feces , unwanted semi-solid matter produced during digestion, which, depending on the type of animal, may include: matter which the animal cannot digest, such as bones ; food material after all the nutrients have been extracted, for example cellulose or lignin ; ingested matter which would be toxic if it remained in the digestive tract; and dead or excess gut bacteria and other endosymbionts . Amphibians, reptiles, and birds use the same orifice (known as the cloaca ) for excreting liquid and solid wastes, for copulation and egg -laying
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Ear
The EAR is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance . In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear , middle ear and the inner ear . The outer ear consists of the pinna and the ear canal . Since the outer ear is the only visible portion of the ear in most animals, the word "ear" often refers to the external part alone. The middle ear includes the tympanic cavity and the three ossicles . The inner ear sits in the bony labyrinth , and contains structures which are key to several senses: the semicircular canals , which enable balance and eye tracking when moving; the utricle and saccule , which enable balance when stationary; and the cochlea , which enables hearing. The ears of vertebrates are placed somewhat symmetrically on either side of the head, an arrangement that aids sound localisation
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Tympanic Membrane
In the anatomy of humans and various other tetrapods , the EARDRUM, also called the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE or MYRINGA, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear . Its function is to transmit sound from the air to the ossicles inside the middle ear, and then to the oval window in the fluid-filled cochlea . Hence, it ultimately converts and amplifies vibration in air to vibration in fluid. The malleus bone bridges the gap between the eardrum and the other ossicles. Rupture or perforation of the eardrum can lead to conductive hearing loss . Collapse or retraction of the eardrum can cause conductive hearing loss or cholesteatoma
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Medically Frail
FRAILTY is a common geriatric syndrome that embodies an elevated risk of catastrophic declines in health and function among older adults . Frailty is a condition associated with ageing , and it has been recognized for centuries. As described by Shakespeare in As You Like It, "the sixth age shifts into the lean and slipper’d pantaloon, with spectacles on nose and pouch on side, his youthful hose well sav’d, a world too wide, for his shrunk shank…". The shrunk shank is a result of loss of muscle with aging. It is also a marker of a more widespread syndrome of frailty, with associated weakness, slowing, decreased energy, lower activity, and, when severe, unintended weight loss. As a population ages, a central focus of geriatricians and public health practitioners is to understand, and then beneficially intervene on, the factors and processes that put elders at such risk, especially the increased vulnerability to stressors (e.g
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Compromised Immune System
IMMUNODEFICIENCY (or IMMUNE DEFICIENCY) is a state in which the immune system 's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent. Most cases of immunodeficiency are acquired ("secondary") due to extrinsic factors that affect the patient's immune system. Examples of these extrinsic factors include HIV
HIV
infection, extremes of age, and environmental factors, such as nutrition. In the clinical setting, the immunosuppression by some drugs, such as steroids, can be either an adverse effect or the intended purpose of the treatment. Examples of such use is in organ transplant surgery as an anti-rejection measure and in patients suffering from an overactive immune system, as in autoimmune diseases . Some people are born with intrinsic defects in their immune system, or primary immunodeficiency . A person who has an immunodeficiency of any kind is said to be IMMUNOCOMPROMISED
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Muscle Tone
In physiology , medicine , and anatomy , MUSCLE TONE (RESIDUAL MUSCLE TENSION or TONUS) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles , or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state. It helps maintain posture and declines during REM sleep . CONTENTS * 1 Purpose * 2 Pathological tonus * 2.1 Tonus in surgery * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links PURPOSEIf a sudden pull or stretch occurs, the body responds by automatically increasing the muscle's tension, a reflex which helps guard against danger as well as helping maintain balance . Such near-continuous innervation can be thought of as a "default" or "steady state" condition for muscles. Both the extensor and flexor muscles are involved in the maintenance of a constant tone while at rest. In skeletal muscles, this helps maintain a normal posture. Resting muscle tone varies along a bell shaped curve
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Deep Vein Thrombosis
DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS, or DEEP VENOUS THROMBOSIS (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within a deep vein , most commonly the legs. Nonspecific signs may include pain, swelling , redness, warmness, and engorged superficial veins . Pulmonary embolism , a potentially life-threatening complication , is caused by the detachment (embolization ) of a clot that travels to the lungs. Together, DVT and pulmonary embolism constitute a single disease process known as venous thromboembolism . Post-thrombotic syndrome , another complication, significantly contributes to the health-care cost of DVT. In 1856, German pathologist Rudolf Virchow
Rudolf Virchow
postulated the interplay of three processes resulting in venous thrombosis, now known as Virchow\'s triad : a decreased blood flow rate (venous stasis ), increased tendency to clot (hypercoagulability ), and changes to the blood vessel wall
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Parasitic Infections
In biology , PARASITISM is a non-mutual relationship between species , where one species, the PARASITE, benefits at the expense of the other, the host . Traditionally parasite primarily meant an organism visible to the naked eye, or a macroparasite (such as a helminth ). Microparasites are typically far smaller, such as protozoa , viruses , and bacteria . Examples of parasites include the plants mistletoe and cuscuta , and animals such as hookworms . Unlike predators , parasites typically do not kill their host, are generally much smaller than their host, and often live in or on their host for an extended period. Both are special cases of consumer-resource interactions . Parasites show a high degree of specialization , and reproduce at a faster rate than their hosts. Classic examples include interactions between vertebrate hosts and tapeworms , flukes , the Plasmodium species, and fleas
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Lobar Pneumonia
LOBAR PNEUMONIA is a form of pneumonia that affects a large and continuous area of the lobe of a lung. It is one of the two anatomic classifications of pneumonia (the other being bronchopneumonia ). STAGES Micrograph of lobar pneumonia, H"> Lobar pneumonia of the middle lobe . (Notice sharp edges) The most common organisms which cause lobar pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumoniae , also called pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis . Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the tubercle bacillus, may also cause lobar pneumonia if pulmonary tuberculosis is not treated promptly. Like other types of pneumonia, lobar pneumonia can present as community acquired, in immune suppressed patients or as nosocomial infection. However, most causative organisms are of the community acquired type
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Medical Conditions
A DISEASE is a particular abnormal condition that affects part or all of an organism and that consists of a disorder of a structure or function. The study of disease is called pathology , which includes the study of cause. Disease
Disease
is often construed as a MEDICAL CONDITION associated with specific symptoms and signs . It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions, particularly of the immune system , such as an immunodeficiency , or by a hypersensitivity , including allergies and autoimmunity . When caused by pathogens (e.g. malaria by Plasmodium ssp.), the term disease is often misleadingly used even in the scientific literature in place of its causal agent, the pathogen. This language habit can cause confusion in the communication of the cause-effect principle in epidemiology, and as such it should be strongly discouraged
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Diagnostic Method
MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS (abbreviated DX or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs . It is most often referred to as DIAGNOSIS with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES, such as diagnostic tests , are also done during the process. Sometimes Posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific . For example, redness of the skin (erythema ), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus doesn't tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis , in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed
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Differential Diagnosis
In medicine , a DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features. Differential diagnostic procedures are used by physicians and other trained medical professionals to diagnose the specific disease in a patient , or, at least, to eliminate any imminently life-threatening conditions. Often, each individual option of a possible disease is called a differential diagnosis (for example, bronchitis could be a differential diagnosis in the evaluation of a cough that ends up with a final diagnosis of common cold ). More generally, a DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE is a systematic diagnostic method used to identify the presence of a disease entity where multiple alternatives are possible
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Cold
COLD is the presence of low temperature , especially in the atmosphere. In common usage, cold is often a subjective perception . A lower bound to temperature is absolute zero , defined as 0.00 K on the Kelvin scale
Kelvin scale
, an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale. This corresponds to −273.15 °C on the Celsius scale
Celsius scale
, −459.67 °F on the Fahrenheit scale
Fahrenheit scale
, and 0.00 °R on the Rankine scale . Since temperature relates to the thermal energy held by an object or a sample of matter, which is the kinetic energy of the random motion of the particle constituents of matter, an object will have less thermal energy when it is colder and more when it is hotter. If it were possible to cool a system to absolute zero, all motion of the particles in a sample of matter would cease and they would be at complete rest in this classical sense
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Pediatrics
PEDIATRICS (also spelled PAEDIATRICS or PæDIATRICS) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants , children , and adolescents . The American Academy of Pediatrics
American Academy of Pediatrics
recommends people be under pediatric care up to the age of 21. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a PEDIATRICIAN, or PAEDIATRICIAN. The word pediatrics and its cognates mean "healer of children"; they derive from two Greek words: παῖς (pais "child") and ἰατρός (iatros "doctor, healer"). Pediatricians work both in hospitals , particularly those working in its specialized subfields such as neonatology , and as primary care physicians
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Specialty (medicine)
A SPECIALTY (or SPECIALITY) in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school , physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a MEDICAL SPECIALIST
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