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Fetus
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms. In human development, a fetus or foetus (/ˈfiːtəs/; plural fetuses or foetuses) is a prenatal human between the embryonic state and birth. The fetal stage of human development tends to be taken as beginning at the gestational age of eleven weeks, i.e. nine weeks after fertilization.[1][2] In biological terms, however, prenatal development is a continuum, with no clear defining feature distinguishing an embryo from a fetus
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Iron
Iron
Iron
is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova, which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements, ruthenium and osmium, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust
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Birth
Birth
Birth
is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.[1] In mammals, the process is initiated by hormones which cause the muscular walls of the uterus to contract, expelling the fetus at a developmental stage when it is ready to feed and breathe. In some species the offspring is precocial and can move around almost immediately after birth but in others it is altricial and completely dependent on parenting. In marsupials, the fetus is born at a very immature stage after a short gestational period and develops further in its mother's wombs pouch. It is not only humans and mammals that give birth. Some reptiles, amphibians, fish and invertebrates carry their developing young inside them
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Ecological Systems Theory
Ecological systems theory, also called development in context or human ecology theory, identifies five environmental systems with which an individual interacts. The theory offers a framework through which community psychologists examine individuals' relationships within communities and the wider society. Ecological systems theory
Ecological systems theory
was developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner
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Menopause
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.[2][8] Menopause
Menopause
typically occurs between 49 and 52 years of age.[3] Medical professionals often define menopause as having occurred when a woman has not had any vaginal bleeding for a year.[4] It may also be defined by a decrease in hormone production by the ovaries.[9] In those who have had surgery to remove their uterus but still have ovaries, menopause may be viewed to have occurred at the time of the surgery or when their hormone levels fell.[9] Following the removal of the
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Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
Evolutionary developmental psychology
Evolutionary developmental psychology
(EDP) is a research paradigm that applies the basic principles of Darwinian evolution, particularly natural selection, to understand the development of human behavior and cognition. It involves the study of both the genetic and environmental mechanisms that underlie the development of social and cognitive competencies, as well as the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions.[1] EDP considers both the reliably developing, species-typical features of ontogeny (developmental adaptations), as well as individual differences in behavior, from an evolutionary perspective
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Organisms
In biology, an organism (from Greek: οργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life. It is a synonym for "life form". Organisms are classified by taxonomy into specified groups such as the multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms such as a protists, bacteria, and archaea.[1] All types of organisms are capable of reproduction, growth and development, maintenance, and some degree of response to stimuli. Humans are multicellular animals composed of many trillions of cells which differentiate during development into specialized tissues and organs. An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote. Prokaryotes are represented by two separate domains—bacteria and archaea
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Viviparous
Among animals, viviparity is development of the embryo inside the body of the parent, eventually leading to live birth, as opposed to reproduction by laying eggs that complete their incubation outside the parental body. Viviparity
Viviparity
and the adjective viviparous derive from Latin vivus ("living") and parire ("to bear young").[1]Contents1 Reproductive mode 2 Evolution 3 References 4 See alsoReproductive mode[edit]Hemotrophic viviparity: a mammal embryo (centre) attached by its umbilical cord to a placenta (top) which provides foodFurther information: Modes of reproduction Five modes of reproduction have been differentiated in animals[2] based on relations between zygote and parents. The five include two nonviviparous modes: ovuliparity, with external fertilisation, and oviparity, with internal fertilisation
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Fertilization
Fertilisation
Fertilisation
or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation,[1] is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.[2] The cycle of fertilisation and development of new individuals is called sexual reproduction. During double fertilisation in angiosperms the haploid male gamete combines with two haploid polar nuclei to form a triploid primary endosperm nucleus by the process of vegetative fertilisation.Contents1 History 2 Fertilisation
Fertilisation
in plants2.1 Bryophytes 2.2 Ferns 2.3 Gymnosperms 2.4 Flowering plants 2.5 Self-Pollination3 Fertilisation
Fertilisation
in animals3.1 Internal vs
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Anatomy
Anatomy
Anatomy
(Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.[1] Anatomy
Anatomy
is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times.[2] Anatomy
Anatomy
is inherently tied to embryology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, and phylogeny,[3] as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long (evolution) timescales. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine.[4] Anatomy and physiology, which study (respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied together. The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Late Latin
Late Latin
Latin
is the scholarly name for the written Latin
Latin
of Late Antiquity.[1] The English dictionary definition of Late Latin
Latin
dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD,[2][3] extending in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
of southwestern Europe to the 7th century.[1] This somewhat-ambiguously-defined period fits between Classical Latin and Medieval Latin. There is no scholarly consensus about exactly when Classical Latin
Latin
should end or exactly when Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
should begin. However, Late Latin
Latin
is characterized (with variations and disputes) by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin
Latin
is not identical with Vulgar. The latter served as Proto-Romance, a reconstructed ancestor of the Romance languages
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Commonwealth Of Nations
The Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Nations[2] (formerly the British Commonwealth),[3][1] also known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.[4] The Commonwealth
Commonwealth
operates by intergovernmental consensus of the member states, organised through the Commonwealth Secretariat and non-governmental organisations, organised through the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
Foundation.[5] The Commonwealth
Commonwealth
dates back to the mid-20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire
British Empire
through increased self-governance of its territories
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Thalamus
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber")[1] is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex,[2][3][page needed] and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.[4] It is a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. It is the main product of the embryonic diencephalon, as first assigned by Wilhelm His, Sr.
Wilhelm His, Sr.
in 1893.[5]Contents1 Anatomy1.1 Blood suppl
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Young Adult (psychology)
A young adult is generally a person ranging in age from their late teens or early twenties to their thirties, although definitions and opinions, such as Erik Erikson's stages of human development, vary. The young adult stage in human development precedes middle adulthood. A person in the middle adulthood stage ages from 40 (or 41) to 64. In old age, a person is 65 years old or older.[1]Contents1 Time co-ordinates 2 Health 3 Early adulthood 4 Age 30 transition 5 Settling down 6 Midlife transition 7 See also 8 Notes 9 ReferencesTime co-ordinates For a variety of reasons, timeliness on young adulthood cannot be exactly defined—producing different results according to the different mix of overlapping indices (legal, maturational, occupational, sexual, emotional and the like) employed, or on whether 'a developmental perspective... [or] the socialization perspective[2] is taken. 'Sub-phases in this timetable of psychosocial growth patterns..
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Cultural-historical Psychology
Cultural-historical psychology
Cultural-historical psychology
is a branch of psychological theory and practice associated with Lev Vygotsky
Lev Vygotsky
and Alexander Luria
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